Demographics of Auckland

Wayback Machine PDF Auckland Regional Council
The Auckland Region (population density) as of early 2010

Auckland is New Zealand's most populous city. In the 2013 census, 1,415,550 persons declared themselves as residents of the Auckland region — an increase of 110,000 people or 8% since the 2006 census. Auckland accounts for about one-third (33.4%) of New Zealand's total population.[1][2] Auckland is known for having a large multicultural mix, with the largest Polynesian population in the world.

While having strong natural population growth, Auckland also has significant external (from overseas) immigration partially offset by internal (within New Zealand) emigration.[3] During the last decade up to 2011, approximately 50 people per day moved to Auckland, requiring an average of 21 new homes, and occupying in excess of one extra hectare of land a day.[4]

Map depicting the change in population by New Zealand region based on the 2006 and 2013 censuses

Ethnicity

Tāmaki Māori, the group of Māori iwi that are indigenous to Auckland, include Ngāti Pāoa, Ngāi Tai, Te Wai-o-Hua, Ngāti Te Ata and Te Kawerau-a-Maki, and the Ngāti Whatua hapu (sub-tribe) of Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei. Auckland also has a large urban Māori population.[5]

The proportion of Asians and other non-European immigrants has increased during the last decades due to immigration,[6] and the removal of restrictions directly or indirectly based on ethnicity. Immigration to New Zealand is heavily concentrated towards Auckland (partly for job market reasons). This strong focus on Auckland has led the immigration services to award extra points towards immigration visa requirements for people intending to move to other parts of New Zealand.[7]

The following table shows the ethnic profile of Auckland's population, as recorded in the 2001, 2006, and 2013 New Zealand censuses.[8] The substantial percentage drop of 'Europeans' in 2006 was mainly caused by the increasing numbers of people from this group choosing to define themselves as 'New Zealanders', as a result of a media campaign that encouraged people to give the response 'New Zealander' even though this was not one of the groups listed on the census form. In the 2013 census fewer Europeans identify themselves as 'New Zealander', leading to a significant increase of numbers in 'Europeans'.[9]

Lion dancers wearing bright red and yellow costumes
Auckland's fastest growing ethnic groups are Asian. Here, lion dancers perform at the Auckland Lantern Festival.
Ethnicity 2001 census 2006 census 2013 census 2018 census
Number % Number % Number % Number %
European 755,967 68.5 700,158 56.5 789,306 59.3 841,386 53.5
   New Zealand European 685,965 62.2 611,898 49.4 696,963 52.3
   South African 9,183 0.8 12,888 1.0 15,741 1.2
   English 13,398 1.2 16,008 1.3 13,497 1.0
   British 6,468 0.6 9,603 0.8 12,087 0.9
   European (not further defined) 10,197 0.9 9,162 0.7 10,668 0.8
   Dutch 7,728 0.7 7,785 0.6 7,998 0.6
   Australian 7,200 0.7 8,637 0.7 7,065 0.5
Asian 151,644 13.8 234,279 18.9 307,233 23.1 442,674 28.2
   Chinese 65,952 6.0 92,889 7.5 112,290 8.4
   Indian 40,326 3.7 69,315 5.6 97,875 7.5
   Korean 13,272 1.2 21,354 1.7 21,981 1.7
   Filipino 6,312 0.6 9,822 0.8 20,499 1.5
   Fijian Indian 1,281 0.1 4,170 0.3 8,067 0.6
   Japanese 4,221 0.4 5,289 0.4 6,720 0.5
Pacific peoples 154,683 14.0 177,948 14.4 194,958 14.6 243,966 15.5
   Samoan 76,584 6.9 87,840 7.1 95,916 7.2
   Tongan 32,538 3.0 40,140 3.2 46,971 3.5
   Cook Islands Māori 31,077 2.8 34,374 2.8 36,549 2.7
   Niuean 16,035 1.5 17,667 1.4 18,555 1.4
   Fijian 4,155 0.4 5,850 0.5 8,493 0.6
Māori 127,704 11.6 137,304 11.1 142,767 10.7 181,194 11.5
Middle Eastern/Latin American/African 13,335 1.2 18,558 1.5 24,945 1.9 35,838 2.3
Other 276 <0.1 100,110 8.1 15,639 1.1 16,746 1.1
   New Zealander N/A 99,474 8.0 14,904 1.1
Total people stated 1,102,818 1,239,054 1,331,427 1,517,718
Not elsewhere included 57,453 5.0 65,907 5.1 84,123 5.9 0 0.0
Ethnic groups by Auckland local board area, 2018 census[10]
Local board area European Maori Pacific Asian MELAA Other
Num. % Num. % Num. % Num. % Num. % Num. %
Rodney 59,013 88.9 7,551 11.4 2,340 3.5 3,756 5.7 450 0.7 822 1.2
Hibiscus and Bays 84,057 80.8 6,735 6.5 2,205 2.1 16,626 16.0 1,551 1.5 1,206 1.2
Upper Harbour 34,746 55.3 3,210 5.1 1,530 2.4 24,867 39.6 1,887 3.0 897 1.4
Kaipatiki 51,633 58.5 7,680 8.7 5,379 6.1 29,034 32.9 2,718 3.1 1,149 1.3
Devonport-Takapuna 40,152 69.3 3,192 5.5 1,443 2.5 15,249 26.3 1,476 2.5 681 1.2
Henderson-Massey 57,633 48.7 20,319 17.2 24,771 20.9 32,523 27.5 3,087 2.6 1,416 1.2
Waitākere Ranges 38,823 74.5 6,621 12.7 6,093 11.7 7,275 14.0 936 1.8 642 1.2
Great Barrier 855 91.3 192 20.5 24 2.6 15 1.6 0 0.0 18 1.9
Waiheke 8,055 88.9 1,035 11.4 342 3.8 366 4.0 315 3.5 108 1.2
Waitemata 49,950 60.3 5,034 6.1 4,053 4.9 26,103 31.5 3,912 4.7 828 1.0
Whau 32,040 40.4 7,845 9.9 14,817 18.7 31,959 40.3 2,286 2.9 780 1.0
Albert-Eden 58,899 59.7 7,005 7.1 7,653 7.8 31,524 32.0 2,748 2.8 990 1.0
Puketapapa 19,356 33.6 3,462 6.0 8,775 15.2 28,266 49.1 2,163 3.8 510 0.9
Orakei 61,221 72.6 4,815 5.7 2,676 3.2 19,296 22.9 2,127 2.5 825 1.0
Maungakiekie-Tamaki 33,438 43.8 10,656 14.0 19,602 25.7 21,309 27.9 1,680 2.2 711 0.9
Howick 64,776 46.0 8,052 5.7 8,028 5.7 65,541 46.5 3,540 2.5 2,010 1.4
Mangere-Otahuhu 14,976 19.1 12,861 16.4 46,578 59.4 14,925 19.0 603 0.8 444 0.6
Otara-Papatoetoe 14,142 16.6 13,392 15.7 39,198 46.0 29,880 35.1 882 1.0 498 0.6
Manurewa 27,942 29.2 24,846 26.0 34,707 36.3 24,345 25.4 1,962 2.1 645 0.7
Papakura 28,305 49.1 15,438 26.8 9,750 16.9 13,497 23.4 918 1.6 588 1.0
Franklin 61,371 82.0 11,247 15.0 4,008 5.4 6,324 8.5 585 0.8 969 1.3

Country of birth

Birthplace of usually resident population, 2006–18 Census[11]
Country 2006 census 2013 census 2018 census
Number % Number % Number %
 New Zealand 777,942 63.0 805,356 60.9 904,905 58.4
 China 54,519 4.4 65,385 4.9 96,540 6.2
 India 30,747 2.5 43,410 3.3 71,358 4.6
 England 72,975 5.9 74,940 5.7 68,799 4.4
 Fiji 28,446 2.3 39,087 3.0 44,658 2.9
 Samoa 35,766 2.9 35,586 2.7 38,232 2.5
 South Africa 24,630 2.0 30,612 2.3 36,759 2.4
 Philippines 9,069 0.7 18,621 1.4 30,237 2.0
 Australia 20,250 1.6 19,590 1.5 21,903 1.4
 South Korea 20,034 1.6 19,470 1.5 21,753 1.4
 Tonga 17,208 1.4 18,117 1.4 20,913 1.3
 Malaysia 8,424 0.7 9,459 0.7 11,607 0.7
 United States 5,931 0.4 7,272 0.5 8,988 0.6
 Sri Lanka 4,503 0.4 5,841 0.4 8,529 0.6
 Cook Islands 10,374 0.8 9,183 0.7 8,259 0.5
 Hong Kong 5,844 0.5 5,109 0.4 8,061 0.5
 Scotland 8,961 0.7 7,851 0.6 7,443 0.5
 Taiwan 7,485 0.6 6,378 0.5 7,113 0.5
 Japan 4,158 0.3 4,959 0.4 6,279 0.4
 Vietnam 3,264 0.3 3,978 0.3 5,859 0.4
 Germany 3,588 0.3 4,164 0.3 5,253 0.3
Other countries 80,208 6.5 88,185 6.7 115,791 7.5
Total people stated 1,234,317 1,322,535 1,571,718
Not elsewhere included 70,641 5.4 93,015 6.6 22,476 1.5
Birthplace by Auckland local board area, 2013 census[12]
Local board area New Zealand Australia Pacific Islands British Isles Europe North America Asia Middle East and Africa Latin America and Other
Num. % Num. % Num. % Num. % Num. % Num. % Num. % Num. % Num. %
Rodney 39,678 77.8 936 1.8 540 1.1 5,763 11.3 1,098 2.2 549 1.1 1,272 2.5 1,092 2.1 90 0.2
Hibiscus and Bays 53,805 63.0 1,476 1.7 624 0.7 13,443 15.7 2,574 3.0 912 1.1 5,499 6.4 6,717 7.9 321 0.4
Upper Harbour 27,525 54.1 699 1.4 762 1.5 4,296 8.4 1,260 2.5 438 0.9 11,562 22.7 4,140 8.1 168 0.3
Kaipatiki 45,189 58.1 1,251 1.6 2,358 3.0 5,991 7.7 2,238 2.9 648 0.8 15,936 20.5 3,711 4.8 432 0.6
Devonport-Takapuna 32,226 60.5 1,113 2.1 522 1.0 5,919 11.1 1,728 3.2 759 1.4 8,598 16.1 2,073 3.9 315 0.6
Henderson-Massey 64,248 64.2 1,230 1.2 10,536 10.5 4,698 4.7 2,232 2.2 501 0.5 13,293 13.3 2,931 2.9 399 0.4
Waitākere Ranges 31,902 70.6 756 1.7 2,265 5.0 4,806 10.6 1,284 2.8 498 1.1 2,454 5.4 1,038 2.3 186 0.4
Great Barrier 663 81.3 21 2.6 3 0.4 72 8.8 21 2.6 18 2.2 9 1.1 9 1.1 0 0.0
Waiheke 5,442 70.3 213 2.8 69 0.9 1,107 14.3 321 4.1 195 2.5 174 2.2 147 1.9 75 1.0
Waitemata 37,689 53.1 1,539 2.2 1,644 2.3 5,190 7.3 2,763 3.9 1,323 1.9 17,589 24.8 2,190 3.1 1,092 1.5
Whau 54,834 54.5 1,584 1.2 3,153 11.4 5,379 4.4 1,899 1.5 966 0.5 18,618 23.5 2,085 2.9 465 0.4
Albert-Eden 54,834 61.6 1,584 1.8 3,153 3.5 5,379 6.0 1,899 2.1 966 1.1 18,618 20.9 2,085 2.3 465 0.5
Puketapapa 24,192 48.3 513 1.0 5,274 10.5 1,773 3.5 645 1.3 270 0.5 15,507 31.0 1,683 3.4 204 0.4
Orakei 49,224 65.4 1,815 2.4 1,230 1.6 6,621 8.8 2,679 3.6 1,083 1.4 9,633 12.8 2,526 3.4 513 0.7
Maungakiekie-Tamaki 38,955 60.8 798 1.2 8,211 12.8 2,496 3.9 1,263 2.0 429 0.7 10,164 15.9 1,449 2.3 267 0.4
Howick 60,189 49.4 1,398 1.1 4,815 4.0 8,730 7.2 2,184 1.8 723 0.6 32,928 27.0 10,488 8.6 399 0.3
Mangere-Otahuhu 36,519 56.8 588 0.9 21,858 34.0 810 1.3 237 0.4 183 0.3 3,477 5.4 501 0.8 84 0.1
Otara-Papatoetoe 36,642 53.4 567 0.8 20,577 30.0 870 1.3 246 0.4 165 0.2 8,598 12.5 837 1.2 93 0.1
Manurewa 48,492 64.6 744 1.0 13,962 18.6 2,082 2.8 429 0.6 198 0.3 6,834 9.1 2,193 2.9 93 0.1
Papakura 32,337 76.5 555 1.3 2,463 5.8 1,950 4.6 429 1.0 174 0.4 3,162 7.5 1,107 2.6 105 0.2
Franklin 48,744 79.3 981 1.6 1,083 1.8 5,502 9.0 954 1.6 378 0.6 2,085 3.3 1,623 2.6 84 0.1

Religion

Major religions in Auckland, 2013 Census

  Catholic (13.29%)
  Anglican (9.10%)
  Presbyterian (7.40%)
  Other Christianity (17.77%)
  Hinduism (4.75%)
  Buddhism (2.53%)
  Islam (2.41%)
  Other religions (2.88%)
  Undeclared (3.75%)
  No religion (37.83%)
Religion of usually resident population, 2001–13 Census[13]
Religion 2001 census 2006 census 2013 census
Number % Number % Number %
Christian 604,713 56.98 636,405 52.96 615,936 47.56
    Catholic 153,678 14.48 169,881 14.14 172,110 13.29
    Anglican 147,993 13.94 141,522 11.78 117,843 9.10
    Presbyterian, Congregational and Reformed 110,490 10.41 109,539 9.12 95,892 7.40
    Christian (not further defined) 63,180 5.95 63,714 5.30 78,480 6.06
    Methodist 47,034 4.43 50,442 4.20 46,770 3.61
    Pentecostal 23,238 2.19 31,104 2.59 31,386 2.42
    Baptist 18,546 1.75 21,495 1.79 21,237 1.64
    Latter-day Saints 16,632 1.57 19,230 1.60 19,374 1.50
    Other Christian religions 32,796 3.09 37,560 3.13 39,240 3.03
Hindu 25,788 2.43 45,327 3.77 61,458 4.75
Buddhist 22,722 2.14 29,217 2.43 32,778 2.53
Islam/Muslim 15,318 1.44 23,688 1.97 31,158 2.41
Sikh 3,225 0.30 6,177 0.51 11,715 0.90
Māori Christian 14,481 1.36 14,574 1.21 11,649 0.90
    Ratana 12,585 1.19 12,438 1.04 10,122 0.78
    Ringatu 1,977 0.19 2,253 0.19 1,617 0.12
    Other Maori Christian religions 153 0.01 141 0.01 114 0.01
Spiritualism and New Age religions 4,854 0.46 5,907 0.49 5,238 0.40
Judaism/Jewish 3,132 0.30 3,315 0.28 3,099 0.24
Other religions 4,767 0.45 5,541 0.46 5,637 0.44
Total people with at least one religious affiliation 692,691 65.27 763,191 63.51 772,095 59.61
No religion 308,592 29.08 390,411 32.49 489,915 37.83
Object to answering 68,601 6.46 67,302 5.60 48,585 3.75

Future growth

The urbanised extent of Auckland (red), as of 2009

Auckland is expecting substantial population growth via immigration and natural population increases (which contribute to growth at about one-third and two-thirds, respectively),[14] and is set to grow to an estimated 2 million inhabitants by 2050 (a compounded annual growth rate of 1.2% vs the 2013 number above).[15] This substantial increase in population will have a major impact on transport, housing and other infrastructure that is in many cases already considered under pressure. It is also feared by some organisations, such as the Auckland Regional Council, that urban sprawl will result from the growth and, as a result, that it is necessary to address this proactively in planning policy.

A 'Regional Growth Strategy' has been adopted that sees limits on further subdivision and intensification of existing use as its main sustainability measures.[16] This policy is contentious, as it naturally limits the uses of private land, especially the subdivision of urban fringe properties,[17] by setting 'Metropolitan Urban Limits' in planning documents like the District Plan.[18] According to the 2006 Census projections, the medium-variant scenario shows that the population is projected to continue growing, to reach 1.93 million by 2031. The high-variant scenario shows the region's population growing to over two million by 2031.[19]

References

  1. ^ http://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/EN/planspoliciesprojects/reports/Pages/censusinaucklandhome.aspx
  2. ^ http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/population/census_counts/2013CensusUsuallyResidentPopulationCounts_MR2013Census.aspx
  3. ^ "New Zealand's population is drifting north - Population mythbusters". Statistics New Zealand. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  4. ^ "Auckland Council - History In The Making". Our Auckland. Auckland Council. March 2011. p. 5.
  5. ^ Taonui, Rāwiri (10 February 2015). "Tāmaki tribes". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  6. ^ "New Zealand — A Regional Profile — Auckland" (PDF). Statistics New Zealand. 1999. pp. 19–20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2007-10-03.
  7. ^ Residence in New Zealand Archived 2007-06-14 at the Wayback Machine (PDF) (Page 8, from the Immigration New Zealand website. Accessed 2008-01-18.)
  8. ^ [1] 2013 Census about a place: Auckland region, Cultural Diversity
  9. ^ [2] 2013 Census QuickStats about national highlights
  10. ^ "Ethnic group (detailed total response - level 3) by age and sex, for the census usually resident population count, 2006, 2013, and 2018 Censuses (RC, TA, SA2, DHB)". nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  11. ^ "Birthplace (detailed), for the census usually resident population count, 2006, 2013, and 2018 Censuses (RC, TA, SA2, DHB)". nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  12. ^ "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – data tables". Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  13. ^ "Religious affiliation (total responses) by age group and sex, for the census usually resident population count, 2001, 2006, and 2013 Censuses (RC, TA, AU)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  14. ^ Can We Stop growth? Archived 2007-10-12 at the Wayback Machine (from the ARC website)
  15. ^ .Executive Summary (PDF) (from the Auckland Regional Growth Strategy document, ARC, November 1999. Retrieved 2007-10-14.)
  16. ^ From Urban Sprawl to Compact City: an analysis of Auckland's Urban Growth Management Strategies Archived 2007-06-28 at the Wayback Machine — Arbury, Joshua — MA Thesis, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
  17. ^ Cumming, Geoff (28 April 2007). "Green belt under siege". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  18. ^ Growth Strategy: Glossary and References Archived 2007-06-14 at the Wayback Machine (PDF) (from the Auckland City Council).
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2014-04-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)