A darknet market is a commercial website on the web that operates via darknets such as Tor or I2P. They function primarily as black markets, selling or brokering transactions involving drugs, cyber-arms, weapons, counterfeit currency, stolen credit card details, forged documents, unlicensed pharmaceuticals, steroids, and other illicit goods as well as the sale of legal products. In December 2014, a study by Gareth Owen from the University of Portsmouth suggested the second most popular sites on Tor were darknet markets.
Following on from the model developed by Silk Road, contemporary markets are characterized by their use of darknet anonymized access (typically Tor), bitcoin payment with escrow services, and eBay-like vendor feedback systems.
1970s to 2011
Though e-commerce on the dark web only started around 2006, illicit goods were among the first items to be transacted using the internet, when in the early 1970s students at Stanford University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology used what was then called the ARPANET to coordinate the purchase of cannabis. By the end of the 1980s, newsgroups like alt.drugs would become online centres of drug discussion and information; however, any related deals were arranged entirely off-site directly between individuals. With the development and popularization of the World Wide Web and e-commerce in the 1990s, the tools to discuss or conduct illicit transactions became more widely available. One of the better-known web-based drug forums, The Hive, launched in 1997, serving as an information sharing forum for practical drug synthesis and legal discussion. The Hive was featured in a Dateline NBC special called The "X" Files in 2001, bringing the subject into public discourse. From 2003, the "Research Chemical Mailing List" (RCML) would discuss sourcing "Research Chemicals" from legal and grey sources as an alternative to forums such as alt.drugs.psychedelics. However Operation Web Tryp led to a series of website shut downs and arrests in this area.
Since the year 2000, some of the emerging cyber-arms industry operates online, including the Eastern European "Cyber-arms Bazaar", trafficking in the most powerful crimeware and hacking tools. In the 2000s, early cybercrime and carding forums such as ShadowCrew experimented with drug wholesaling on a limited scale.
The Farmer's Market was launched in 2006 and moved onto Tor in 2010. It was closed and several operators and users arrested in April 2012 as a result of Operation Adam Bomb, a two-year investigation led by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. It has been considered a "proto-Silk Road" but the use of payment services such as PayPal and Western Union allowed law enforcement to trace payments and it was subsequently shut down by the FBI in 2012.
Silk Road and early markets
The first pioneering marketplace to use both Tor and Bitcoin escrow was Silk Road, founded by Ross Ulbricht under pseudonym "Dread Pirate Roberts" in February 2011. In June 2011, Gawker published an article about the site, which led to "Internet buzz" and an increase in website traffic. This in turn led to political pressure from Senator Chuck Schumer on the US DEA and Department of Justice to shut it down, which they finally did in October 2013 after a lengthy investigation. Silk Road's use of all of Tor, Bitcoin escrow and feedback systems would set the standard for new darknet markets for the coming years. The shutdown was described by news site DeepDotWeb as "the best advertising the dark net markets could have hoped for" following the proliferation of competing sites this caused, and The Guardian predicted others would take over the market that Silk Road previously dominated.
The months and years after Silk Road's closure were marked by a greatly increased number of shorter-lived markets as well as semi-regular law enforcement take downs, hacks, scams and voluntary closures.
Atlantis, the first site to accept Litecoin as well as Bitcoin, closed in September 2013, just prior to the Silk Road raid, leaving users just one week to withdraw any coins. In October 2013, Project Black Flag closed and stole their users' bitcoins in the panic shortly after Silk Road's shut down. Black Market Reloaded's popularity increased dramatically after the closure of Silk Road and Sheep Marketplace; however, in late November 2013, the owner of Black Market Reloaded announced that the website would be taken offline due to the unmanageable influx of new customers this caused. Sheep Marketplace, which launched in March 2013, was one of the lesser known sites to gain popularity with Silk Road's closure. Not long after those events, in December 2013, it ceased operation after two Florida men stole $6 million worth of users' Bitcoins.
Post-Silk Road to present
From late 2013 through to 2014, new markets started launching with regularity, such as the Silk Road 2.0, run by the former Silk Road site administrators, as well as the Agora marketplace. Such launches were not always a success; in February 2014 Utopia, the highly anticipated market based on Black Market Reloaded, opened only to shut down 8 days later following rapid actions by Dutch law enforcement. February 2014 also marked the short lifespans of Black Goblin Market and CannabisRoad, two sites which closed after being demonized without much effort.
November 2014 briefly shook the darknet market ecosystem, when Operation Onymous, executed by the United States' FBI and UK's National Crime Agency, led to the seizure of 27 hidden sites, including Silk Road 2.0, one of the largest markets at the time, as well 12 smaller markets and individual vendor sites. By September 2014, Agora was reported to be the largest market, avoiding Operation Onymous, and as of April 2015[update] has gone on to be the largest overall marketplace with more listings than the Silk Road at its height.
2015 would feature market diversification and further developments around escrow and decentralization.
In March 2015, the Evolution marketplace performed an "exit scam", stealing escrowed bitcoins worth $12 million, half of the ecosystem's listing market share at that time. The closure of Evolution led to a users redistributing to Black Bank and Agora. However Black Bank, which as of April 2015[update] captured 5% of the darknet market's listings, announced on May 18, 2015 its closure for "maintenance" before disappearing in a similar scam. Following these events commentators suggested that further market decentralization could be required, such as the service OpenBazaar, in order to protect buyers and vendors from this risk in the future as well as more widespread support from "multi-sig" cryptocurrency payments.
In April, TheRealDeal, the first open cyber-arms market for software exploits as well as drugs, launched to the interest of computer security experts. In May, varied DDOS attacks were performed against different markets including TheRealDeal. The market owners set up a phishing website to get the attacker's password, and subsequently revealed collaboration between the attacker and the administrator of Mr Nice Guy's market who was also planning to scam his users. This information was revealed to news site DeepDotWeb.
At the end of August, the leading marketplace Agora announced its imminent temporary closure after reporting suspicious activity on their server, suspecting some kind of deanonymization bug in Tor.
By October 2015, AlphaBay was recognized as the largest market. From then on, through to 2016 there was a period of extended stability for the markets, until in April when the large Nucleus marketplace collapsed for unknown reasons, taking escrowed coins with it.
On April 28, investigations into the Italian Darknet Community (IDC) forum-based marketplace led to a number of key arrests.
In May 2017, the Bloomsfield market closed after investigations in Slovakia inadvertently led to the arrests of its operators. Later that month, the long-lived Outlaw market closed down citing a major bitcoin cryptocurrency wallet theft; however, speculation remained that it was an exit scam.
In July 2017, the markets experienced their largest disruptions since Operations Onymous, when Operation Bayonet culminated in coordinated multinational seizures of both the Hansa and leading AlphaBay markets, sparking worldwide law enforcement investigations. The seizures brought in lots of traffic to other markets making TradeRoute and Dream Market the most popular markets at the time.
In October 2017, TradeRoute exit-scammed shortly after being hacked and extorted.
In June 2018, the digital security organization Digital Shadows reported that, due to the climate of fear and mistrust after the closure of AlphaBay and Hansa, darknet market activity was switching away from centralized marketplace websites and towards alternatives such as direct chat on Telegram, or decentralized marketplaces like OpenBazaar.
Currently (2019–present) Dream Market held the title as the most popular market by far, with over 120,000 current trade listings.[needs update] Dream Market is followed by Wall Street Market, with under 10,000 listings. Wall Street Market was seized by law enforcement in May 2019.
The May 2019 seizure of news and links site DeepDotWeb for conspiring with the markets created a temporary disruption around market navigation. The site has been partially succeeded by dark web discussion forum Dread.
During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, a heightened sense of fear has urged many people to buy overpriced products on the dark web. Marketplaces have seen increased demand for masks, gowns, gloves, and the drug chloroquine. Even blood allegedly belonging to recovered coronavirus patients was offered for sale. Fake vaccines were distributed for an average of $370 (£300), while one supposedly sourced from China was sold for between $10-15,000 (£8-12,000).
Search and discussion
One of the central discussion forums was Reddit's /r/DarkNetMarkets/, which has been the subject of legal investigation, as well as the Tor-based discussion forum, The Hub. On March 21, 2018, Reddit administrators shut down the popular subreddit /r/DarkNetMarkets citing new changes to their content policy that forbids the sale of "Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, or any controlled substances". This led to the rise of Dread, the dedicated darknet discussion forum.
Dark web news and review sites such as the former DeepDotWeb, and All Things Vice provide exclusive interviews and commentary into the dynamic markets. Uptime and comparison services such as DNStats provide sources of information about active markets as well as suspected scams and law enforcement activity. Due to the decentralized nature of these markets, phishing and scam sites are often maliciously or accidentally referenced.
After discovering the location of a market, a user must register on the site, sometimes with a referral link, after which they can browse listings. A further PIN may be required to perform transactions, better protecting users against login credential compromise.
Transactions typically use Bitcoin for payment, sometimes combined with tumblers for added anonymity and PGP to secure communications between buyers and vendors from being stored on the site itself. Many sites use Bitcoin multisig transactions to improve security and reduce dependency on the site's escrow. The Helix Bitcoin tumbler offers direct anonymized marketplace payment integrations.
On making a purchase, the buyer must transfer cryptocurrency into the site's escrow, after which a vendor dispatches their goods then claims the payment from the site. On receipt or non-receipt of the item users may leave feedback against the vendor's account. Buyers may "finalize early" (FE), releasing funds from escrow to the vendor prior to receiving their goods in order to expedite a transaction, but leave themselves vulnerable to fraud if they choose to do so.
Following Operation Onymous, there was a substantial increase in PGP support from vendors, with PGP use on two marketplaces near 90%. This suggests that law enforcement responses to cryptomarkets result in continued security innovations, thereby making markets more resilient to undercover law enforcement efforts.
Items on a typical centralized darknet market are listed from a range of vendors in an eBay-like marketplace format. Virtually all such markets have advanced reputation, search and shipping features similar to Amazon.com.
Some of the most popular vendors are now opening up dedicated own online shops separate from the large marketplaces. Individual sites have even returned to operating on the clearnet, with mixed success.
Some internet forums such as the defunct Tor Carding Forum and the Russian Anonymous Marketplace function as markets with trusted members providing escrow services and users engaging in off-forum messaging. In May 2014 the "Deepify" service attempted to automate the process of setting up markets with a SAAS solution; however, this closed a short time later.
Following repeated problems associated with centralized infrastructure, a number of decentralized marketplace software alternatives have arisen using blockchain or peer-to-peer technologies, including OpenBazaar and Bitmarkets,
Many vendors list their wares on multiple markets, ensuring they retain their reputation even should a single market place close. Grams have launched "InfoDesk" to allow central content and identity management for vendors as well as PGP key distribution.
A February 2016 report suggested that a quarter of all DNM purchases were for resale.
Personally identifying information, financial information like credit card and bank account information, and medical data from medical data breaches is bought and sold, mostly in darknet markets but also in other black markets. People increase the value of the stolen data by aggregating it with publicly available data, and sell it again for a profit, increasing the damage that can be done to the people whose data was stolen.
Fraud and hacking services
Cyber crime and hacking services for financial institutions and banks have also been offered over the dark web. Markets such as AlphaBay Market have hosted a significant share of the commercial fraud market, featuring carding, counterfeiting and many related services. Loyalty card information is also sold as it is easy to launder.
Prohibitions and restrictions
Many markets refuse to list weapons or poisons. Markets such as the original Silk Road would refuse to list anything where the "purpose is to harm or defraud, such as stolen credit cards, assassinations, and weapons of mass destruction".
Later markets such as Evolution ban "child pornography, services related to murder/assassination/terrorism, prostitution, Ponzi schemes, and lotteries", but allow the wholesaling of credit card data.
Background research tasks included learning from past drug lords, researching legal matters, studying law enforcement agency tactics and obtaining legal representation. With regards to the prospective market's hosting, he recommends identifying a hosting country with gaps in their mutual legal assistance treaty with one's country of residence, avoiding overpriced bulletproof hosting and choosing a web host with Tor support that accepts suitably hard-to-trace payment. Patterns recommended to avoid include hiring hitmen like Dread Pirate Roberts, and sharing handles for software questions on sites like Stack Exchange.
He advises on running a secured server operating system with a server-side transparent Tor proxy server, hardening web application configurations, Tor-based server administration, automated server configuration management rebuild and secure destruction with frequent server relocation rather than a darknet managed hosting service. To protect against guard node deanonymization he recommends obfuscating traffic by investing in Tor relays which the market site will exclusively use.
For a local machine configuration he recommends a computer purchased for cash running Linux, using a local Tor transparent proxy. For operations security he suggests avoiding storing conversation logs, varying writing styles, avoiding mobile phone-based tracking and leaking false personal details to further obfuscate one's identity. Use of OTR and PGP are recommended.
He recommends verifying market employees carefully, and to weed out law enforcement infiltration through barium meal tests.
A large number of services pretend to be a legitimate vendor shop, or marketplace of some kind in order to defraud people. These include the notoriously unreliable gun stores, or even fake assassination websites.
Centralized market escrow means that an individual market may close down and "exit" with the buyer's and vendor's cryptocurrency at any given time. This has happened on several occasions such as with BlackBank and most notoriously Evolution who pocketed US$12 million worth of escrowed coins.
Individual vendors often reach a point of reputation maturity whereby they have sold sufficient product reliably to have gained a significant reputation and accumulated escrowed funds; many may choose to exit with the funds rather than compete at the higher-volume higher-priced matured product level.
In December 2014, an exhibition by Carmen Weisskopf and Domagoj Smoljo entitled "The Darknet: From Memes to Onionland" explored Darknet culture. This featured a bot called the "Random Darknet Shopper" which spent $100 in BTC per week on products listed on Agora. Their aim was to explore the ethical and philosophical implications of these markets, which, despite high-profile internationally co-ordinated raids, persist and flourish.
James Martin's 2014 book Drugs on the Dark Net: How Cryptomarkets are Transforming the Global Trade in Illicit Drugs discusses some vendors who are even branding their opium or cocaine as "fair trade", "organic" or sourced from conflict-free zones. In June 2015 journalist Jamie Bartlett gave a TED talk about the state of the darknet market ecosystem as it stands today.
According to 2014 studies by Martin Aldridge & Décary-Hétu and a January 2015 report from the Global Drug Policy Observatory, many harm reduction trends have been spotted. These include the reduced risks associated with street dealing such as being offered hard drugs. The vendor feedback system provides accountability for risks of mixing and side effects and protection against scammers. Online forum communities provide information about safe drug use in an environment where users can anonymously ask questions. Some users report the online element having a moderating effect on their consumption due to the increased lead time ordering from the sites compared to street dealing.
Professor for addiction research Heino Stöver notes that the shops can be seen as a political statement, advancing drug legalization "from below". The results of these markets are higher quality and lower prices of psychoactive substances as well as a lower risk of violent incidents. A number of studies suggest that markets such as Silk Road may have helped users reduce the harm caused by illicit drug use, particularly compared with street-based drug marketplaces. Examples include the sale of high-quality products with low risk for contamination (including lacing and cutting), vendor-tested products, sharing of trip reports, and online discussion of harm reduction practices. Some health professionals such as "DoctorX" provide information, advice and drug-testing services on the darknet. The quality of products is attributed to the competition and transparency of darknet markets which involve user feedback and reputation features.
Europol reported in December 2014, "We have lately seen a large amount of physical crime move online, at least the 'marketing' and delivery part of the business ... [Buyers can] get the illegal commodity delivered risk-free to a place of their choice by the mailman or a courier, or maybe by drone in the future, and can pay with virtual currency and in full anonymity, without the police being able to identify either the buyer or the seller."
In June 2015 the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) produced a report citing difficulties controlling virtual market places via darknet markets, social media and mobile apps. In August 2015 it was announced that Interpol now offers a dedicated Dark Web training program featuring technical information on Tor and cybersecurity and simulated darknet market takedowns.
In October 2015 the UK's National Crime Agency and GCHQ announced the formation of a "Joint Operations Cell" to focus on cybercrime. In November 2015 this team would be tasked with tackling child exploitation on the dark web as well as other cybercrime.
In February 2015, the EMCDDA produced another report citing the increased importance of customer service and reputation management in the marketplace, the reduced risk of violence and increased product purity. It estimated a quarter of all purchases were for resale and that the trend towards decentralization meant they are unlikely to be eliminated any time soon.
A June 2016 report from the Global Drug Survey described how the markets are increasing in popularity, despite ongoing law enforcement action and scams. Other findings include consumers making purchases via friends operating Tor browser and Bitcoin payments, rather than directly. Access to markets in 79% of respondents' cases led to users trying a new type of drug.
Size of listings
The size of the darknet markets economy can be problematic to estimate. A study based on a combination of listing scrapes and feedback to estimate sales volume by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University captured some of the best data. A reviewed 2013 analysis put the Silk Road grossing $300,000 a day, extrapolating to over $100 million over a year. Subsequent data from later markets has significant gaps as well as complexities associated with analysing multiple marketplaces.
- 18,174 – October 2013, Digital Citizens Alliance, 13,472 of which were on Silk Road in November 2013
- 41,207 – April 2014 Digital Citizens Alliance
- 33,985 – May 2014 The Guardian via Reddit
- 43,175 – July 2014 a report by the BBC
- 65,595 – August 2014 Digital Citizens Alliance
- 51,755 – December 2014 Digital Citizens Alliance
- 68,835 – March 2015 (before Evolution scam), Digital Citizens Alliance
- 68,322 – April 2015 (after Evolution scam)
- Silk Road
- Black Market Reloaded
- Middle Earth
- Black Bank
- Alpha Bay
In the episode "eps2.3_logic-b0mb.hc" (ep. 5 of season 2) of the drama–thriller television series, Mr. Robot, the protagonist, Elliot, is supposed to be repairing a Tor hidden site which turns out to be a darknet market called "Midland City" styled after the Silk Road for the sale of guns, sex trafficked women, rocket launchers, drugs and hitmen for hire.
In the 2016 movie Nerve starring Emma Roberts and Dave Franco, the dark web plays a major role.
In Grand Theft Auto Online, players who purchase warehouses and garages for illicit cargo and stolen cars can buy/steal and sell them through trade on the "SecuroServ" syndicate website. After the Biker DLC, players can now purchase buildings for illegal drugs and counterfeit products manufacture, and distribute them through a darknet website called "The Open Road" where law enforcement cannot be notified of the player's trade.
- Black market
- Carding (fraud)
- Crime forum
- Cyber-arms industry
- Deep Web (film)
- Drug liberalization
- Illegal drug trade
- List of Tor hidden services
- Bennett, Cory (2015-04-04). "Private 'darknet' markets under "as_sign initially anonymous"siege". Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- DeepDotWeb (2013-10-28). "Updated: List of Dark Net Markets (Tor & I2P)". Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- Winder, Davey (21 Apr 2015). "Is this new zero-day dark market the real deal?". Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- van Hardeveld, Gert Jan; Webber, Craig; O'Hara, Kieron (2017). "Deviating From the Cybercriminal Script: Exploring Tools of Anonymity (Mis)Used by Carders on Cryptomarkets" (PDF). American Behavioral Scientist. 61 (11): 1244–1266. doi:10.1177/0002764217734271. S2CID 149063898.
- Whitaker, Ross (14 July 2015). "Why I Had to Buy My Wife's Inhaler on the Dark Web". Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- Plenke, Max (18 May 2015). "Inside the Underground Market Where Bodybuilders Find Dangerous, Illegal Steroids". Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Bartlett, Jamie (5 October 2014). "Dark net markets: the eBay of drug dealing". Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- Mark, Ward (30 December 2014). "Tor's most visited hidden sites host child abuse images". Retrieved 28 May 2015.
- Gayle, Damien (11 February 2016). "Online market 'is turning drug dealers from goons to geeks'". Retrieved 13 February 2016.
- Power, Mike (19 April 2013). "Online highs are old as the net: the first e-commerce was a drugs deal". Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- Patrick Howell O'Neill (15 February 2015). "The uncensored history of the Internet's drug revolution". Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- Patrick Howell O'Neill (28 August 2013). "How the Internet powered a DIY drug revolution". Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Power, Mike (2013-05-02). Drugs 2.0. ISBN 9781846274619. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- Cyber Security Dojo (13 May 2015). "Romania defending Ukraine's cyberspace". Archived from the original on 17 May 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Allen, Hoffmann (5 January 2015). "Before DarkNetMarkets Were Mainstream". Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- Schwartz, Mathew J. (17 April 2012). "Feds Bust 'Farmer's Market' for Online Drugs". Dark Reading. Information Week.
- "US busts online drugs ring Farmer's Market". BBC News. 17 April 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Black Market Drug Site 'Silk Road' Booming: $22 Million In Annual Sales". Forbes. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- Justin Norrie; Asher Moses (12 June 2011). "Drugs bought with virtual cash". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Public statement from a Silk Road spokesperson Archived 2011-06-05 at the Wayback Machine 1 March 2011.
- Adrian Chen (1 June 2011). "The Underground Website Where You Can Buy Any Drug Imaginable". Gawker. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- Solon, Olivia (1 February 2013). "Police crack down on Silk Road following first drug dealer conviction Technology". WIRED. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Gayathri, Amrutha (11 June 2011). "From marijuana to LSD, now illegal drugs delivered on your doorstep". International Business Times. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- "Schumer Pushes to Shut Down Online Drug Marketplace". NBC New York. Associated Press. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- "Sealed Complaint 13 MAG 2328: United States of America v. Ross William Ulbricht" (PDF). 27 September 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-20. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Deep Web. 2015.
- Crawford, Angus (31 July 2014). "Dark net drugs adverts 'double in less than a year'". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Alex Hern (18 October 2013). "Silk Road replacement Black Market Reloaded briefly closed". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- Samuel Gibbs (3 October 2013). "Silk Road underground market closed – but others will replace it". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- Chen, Adrian (20 September 2013). "Popular Underground Drug Market Shuts Down for 'Security Reasons'". Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Greenberg, Andy (30 October 2013). "'Silk Road 2.0' Launches, Promising A Resurrected Black Market For The Dark Web". Forbes. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- DeepDotWeb (30 October 2013). "Project Black Flag Waves the White Flag". Archived from the original on 9 August 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Bilton, Nick (2013-11-17). "Disruptions: A Digital Underworld cloaked in anonymity". New York Times.
- Greenburg, Andy (1 December 2013). "Silk Road Competitor Shuts Down And Another Plans To Go Offline After Claimed $6 Million Theft". Forbes. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- Patrick Howell O'Neill (27 March 2015). "Suspected Dark Net master thief busted trying to buy luxury Czech home". Daily Dot.
- Shin, Laura (30 May 2016). "Mystery Solved: $6.6 Million Bitcoin Theft That Brought Down Dark Web Site Tied To 2 Florida Men". Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Adrianne Jeffries (2013-04-29). "Drugs, porn, and counterfeits: the market for illegal goods is booming online". The Verge. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- "Dark marketplace closes after theft of £3m in bitcoins". BBC News. 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- Mandalia, Ravi (2013-12-01). "Silk Road-like Sheep Marketplace scams users; over 39k Bitcoins worth $40 million stolen". Techie News. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- Andy Greenberg. "Drug Market 'Agora' Replaces the Silk Road as King of the Dark Net". Wired, 2 September 2014.
- Grenberg, Andy (6 December 2013). "New Silk Road Drug Market Backed Up To '500 Locations In 17 Countries' To Resist Another Takedown". Forbes.com. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- DeepDotWeb (3 February 2014). "Utopia Marketplace is Now Officially Open!". Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- DeepDotWeb (31 December 2013). "BMR Based Market: Utopia Market". Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- BBC Technology (12 February 2014). "Utopia drugs market forced off Tor by Dutch police". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- DeepDotWeb (9 February 2014). "Another Two Bites The Dust (Black Goblin Marketplace & CannabisRoad)". Archived from the original on 1 October 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
- Templeton, Graham (8 November 2014). "Dark market massacre: FBI shuts down Silk Road 2.0 and dozens more Tor websites". Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- Vinton, Kate (7 November 2015). "So Far Feds Have Only Confirmed Seizing 27 "Dark Market" Sites In Operation Onymous". Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Darknet Marketplace Watch – Monitoring Sales of Illegal Drugs on the Darknet (Q1)". Digital Citizens Alliance. Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Greenberg, Andy (18 March 2015). "The Dark Web's Top Drug Market, Evolution, Just Vanished". Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- DeepDotWeb (18 May 2015). "BlackBank Under Maintenance". Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Black Bank Bitcoin Market". DeepDotWeb. Archived from the original on 2017-01-13. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- Cohen, David (18 January 2015). "After The Social Web, Here Comes The Trust Web". TechChrunch. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- OpenBazaar Team (19 March 2015). "Evolution Exit Scam Shows Multisig Isn't Enough: We need Decentralization". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- Greenberg, Andy (17 April 2015). "New Dark-Web Market Is Selling Zero-Day Exploits to Hackers". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- DeepDotWeb (31 May 2015). "Meet The Market Admin Who Was Responsible For the Ddos Attacks". Archived from the original on 3 June 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Cox, Joseph (4 June 2015). "A Dark Web Tale of DDoS Attacks, Phishing, and 'Deals With the Devil'". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Paganini, Pierluigi (7 June 2015). "The silent war between black markets in the deep web". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Willan, Philip (31 July 2015). "Italian police shutter Dark Web marketplace". Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- DeepDotWeb (2 August 2015). "Italian police Bust "Babylon" Dark Web Market". Archived from the original on 3 August 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- Greenberg, Andy (26 August 2015). "Agora, the Dark Web's Biggest Drug Market, Is Going Offline". Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Buying Drugs Online Remains Easy". Southwest Coalition.
- Cox, Joseph (19 April 2016). "Dark Web Market Disappears, Users Migrate in Panic, Circle of Life Continues". Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- Aliens, C (12 May 2017). "Italy Watched the Italian Darknet Community Since 2016". Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- Cimpanu, Catalin (5 May 2017). "Dark Web Marketplace Shut Down in Slovakia". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- Cimpanu, Catalin (20 May 2017). "Dark Web Market Shuts Down Claiming Hack, but Users Fear an Exit Scam". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- "Massive blow to criminal Dark Web activities after globally coordinated operation". 20 July 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- Aliens, C (15 October 2017). "TradeRoute Went Down Following a Major Security Leak". Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- "Dark web souks are so last year: Cybercrooks are switching to Telegram".
- "Darknet Vendors and Buyers Switching to Decentralized Trading Solutions". 2018-06-26. Archived from the original on 2018-07-01. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
- "Dark Web's Wall Street Market & Valhalla Seized, Six Arrested". Bleeping Computer. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
- Kan, Michael (7 May 2019). "Feds Seize DeepDotWeb for Taking Money From Black Market Sites". Retrieved 7 May 2019.
- Popper, Nathaniel (11 June 2019). "Dark Web Drug Sellers Dodge Police Crackdowns". Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Kan, Michael (7 May 2019). "Feds Seize DeepDotWeb for Taking Money From Black Market Sites". Retrieved 7 May 2019.
- Shah, Sooraj (2020-05-19). "Dark web scammers exploit Covid-19 fear and doubt". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-05-28.
- Greenberg, Andy (30 March 2015). "Feds Demand Reddit Identify Users of a Dark-Web Drug Forum". Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- Swearingen, Jake (2 October 2014). "A Year After Death of Silk Road, Darknet Markets Are Booming". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Knibbs, Kate (30 March 2015). "Feds Want Reddit to Give Up Personal Info of Darknet Market Redditors". Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- "New addition to site-wide rules regarding the use of Reddit to conduct transactions". News. Reddit. 2018-03-21.
- "/r/DarkNetMarkets shut down by Reddit". News. Reddit. 2018-03-21.
- Popper, Nathaniel (11 June 2019). "Dark Web Drug Sellers Dodge Police Crackdowns". Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Kan, Michael (7 May 2019). "Feds Seize DeepDotWeb for Taking Money From Black Market Sites". Retrieved 7 May 2019.
- "Updated: List of Dark Net Markets (Tor & I2P)". DeepDotWeb. 2013-10-28. Archived from the original on 29 August 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Patrick Howell O'Neill (9 November 2015). "The Dark Net drug market that survived Ukraine's civil war". Daily Dot. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- Zetter, Kim (17 April 2015). "New 'Google' for the Dark Web Makes Buying Dope and Guns Easy". Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo (13 May 2015). "Hackers Tried To Hold a Darknet Market For a Bitcoin Ransom". Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- Solon, Olivia (3 February 2013). "Police crack down on Silk Road following first drug dealer conviction". Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- Greenberg, Andy (18 September 2014). "The Dark Web Gets Darker With Rise of the 'Evolution' Drug Market". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- DeepDotWeb (3 July 2015). "Beware of Phishing Scams On Clearnet Sites! (darknetmarkets.org)". Archived from the original on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- DeepDotWeb (2014-03-02). "DeepDotWeb's DarkNet Dictionary Project!". Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- Galt, John (26 April 2015). "Deciphering Dark Net Market Terminology". Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- Spotz, Kenny (16 July 2014). "What I've Learned as an Internet Drug Dealer". Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- Deepdotweb (August 5, 2014). "Helix Updates: Integrated Markets Can Now Helix Your BTC". Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Aldridge, Judith (2017). "Delivery dilemmas: How drug cryptomarket users identify and seek to reduce their risk of detection by law enforcement". International Journal of Drug Policy. 41: 101–109. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.10.010. PMID 28089207.
- DeepDotWeb (2013-10-28). "Updated: List of Dark Net Markets (Tor & I2P)". DeepDotWeb. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
|archive-url=is malformed: timestamp (help)
- IHS Jane's Intelligence Review (30 December 2014). "Law enforcement struggles to control darknet". Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- DeepDotWeb. "Vendor Shops". Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Cox, Joseph (18 August 2015). "Some Brazen Drug Marketplaces Are Operating on the Normal Web". Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- Krebs, Brian (14 December 2014). "Alleged Counterfeiter "Willy Clock" Arrested". Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Greenberg, Andy (14 November 2014). "How a Russian Dark Web Drug Market Outlived the Silk Road (And Silk Road 2)". Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- Patrick Howell O'Neill (4 March 2014). "I made my own Deep Web black market, and it took just 60 seconds". Retrieved 6 December 2015.
- "Deepify Directory". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
- Power, Mike (11 December 2014). "Bitmarkets: the app for selling anything to anyone in complete privacy". Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- DeepDotWeb (17 May 2014). "A Sneak Peek To Grams Search Engine "Stage 2: Infodesk"". Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- J Martin, Alexander (24 July 2015). "Global drug-dealing cyber crime web was centred on ... Aberdovey". Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Busted: Drug trade routed through Dark Web, Bitcoin". Gloucestershire Echo. 21 May 2016. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- Compton, Ryan. "Darknet Market Basket Analysis". ryancompton.net. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- Normann, Claus; Berger, Mathias (November 2008). "Neuroenhancement: status quo and perspectives" (PDF). European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 258: 110–114. doi:10.1007/s00406-008-5022-2. PMID 18985306. S2CID 9733191.
- Woolf, Nicky (31 May 2015). "Silk Road sentencing: why governments can't win the war on darknet drugs". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- Valette, Jean-Jacques. "Du commerce illicite à la liberté d'expression totale, on a plongé dans le darknet". We Demain. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- Holt, Thomas J.; Smirnova, Olga; Chua, Yi-Ting (2016). Data thieves in action : examining the international market for stolen personal information. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-58904-0.
- Rossi, Ben (8 July 2015). "The ripple effect of identity theft: What happens to my data once it's stolen?". Information Age.
- "The Dark Net: Policing the Internet's Underworld". World Policy Journal. 32.
- G, Joshua (20 April 2015). "Interview With AlphaBay Market Admin". Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- Hall, Kat (16 December 2015). "At least 10 major loyalty card schemes compromised in industry-wide scam". Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- Cox, Joseph (9 July 2015). "The Dark Web's Biggest Market Is Going to Stop Selling Guns". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Cox, Joseph (July 21, 2015). "The Crackdown on the Dark Web Poison Trade". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Leyden, John (11 September 2015). "'Walter Mitty' IT manager admits to buying gun on dark web". Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Cox, Joseph (22 September 2016). "A Survey of the Dark Web Knife Trade". Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- DeepDotWeb (15 April 2015). "So, You Want To Be a Darknet Drug Lord ..." Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- "2600". Spring 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- "Transparently Routing Traffic Through Tor". Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- "Darknet Solutions". darknetsolutions.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Patrick Howell O'Neill (4 August 2013). "An in-depth guide to Freedom Hosting, the engine of the Dark Net". Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Easttom, C. (2019). Conducting Dark Web Investigations". Spring 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- "Interpol Dark Web Training". Spring 2019. Archived from the original on 2016-04-28. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- Cox, Joseph (18 May 2016). "This Fake Hitman Site Is the Most Elaborate, Twisted Dark Web Scam Yet". Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Janetos, Nick (January 2017). "Reputation Dynamics in a Market for Illicit Drugs" (PDF). 1703: 18. arXiv:1703.01937. Bibcode:2017arXiv170301937J. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017. Cite journal requires
- "The 'Exit Scam' Is the Darknet's Perfect Crime". Motherboard. 2015-02-04.
- Pangburn, DJ (13 January 2015). "The Best Things a Random Bot Bought on the Dark Net". Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- Power, Mike (5 December 2014). "What happens when a software bot goes on a darknet shopping spree?". Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- Martin, James. "Drugs on the Dark Net: How Cryptomarkets are Transforming the Global Trade in Illicit Drugs". Retrieved 8 Aug 2015.
- Bartlett, Jamie (June 2015). "Jamie Bartlett: How the mysterious dark net is going mainstream". Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- Martin, James (2014). "Lost on the Silk Road: Online drug distribution and the "cryptomarket"". Criminology & Criminal Justice. 14 (3): 351–367. doi:10.1177/1748895813505234. S2CID 145000314.
- Aldridge, Judith; Décary-Hétu, David (2014-05-13). "Not an 'Ebay for Drugs': The Cryptomarket 'Silk Road' as a Paradigm Shifting Criminal Innovation". SSRN 2436643. Cite journal requires
- Buxton, Julia; Bingham, Tim. "The Rise and Challenge of Dark Net Drug Markets" (PDF). www.swansea.ac.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Dworschak, Manfred; Winter, Steffen (2015). "Der Prinz des Darknet". Der Spiegel (34). Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "Drogen im Darknet". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "The internet and drug markets" (PDF). European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "Drug supply and the market". June 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Box, Joseph (8 November 2015). "The UK Will Police the Dark Web with a New Task Force". Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Cox, Joseph (14 June 2016). "More People Than Ever Say They Get Their Drugs on the Dark Web". Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Kyle Soska and Nicolas Christin (13 August 2015). "Measuring the Longitudinal Evolution of the Online Anonymous Marketplace Ecosystem" (PDF). Retrieved 9 June 2016. Cite journal requires
- Digital Citizens Alliance. "BUSTED, BUT NOT BROKEN, THE STATE OF SILK ROAD AND THE DARKNET MARKETPLACES" (PDF): 22. Retrieved 25 May 2015. Cite journal requires
- Power, Mike (30 May 2014). "Life after Silk Road: how the darknet drugs market is booming". Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Darknet-August 2014". Digital Citizens Alliance. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Darknet Marketplace Watch – Monitoring Sales of Illegal Drugs on the Darknet". Digital Citizens Alliance. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Silk Road successors". The Economist. 29 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Varmazis, Maria (2016-08-04). "Mr. Robot eps2.3logic-b0mb.hc – the security review". Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- Jensen, Jeff. "Mr. Robot recap: 'eps2.3logic-b0mb.hc'". Retrieved 6 August 2016.