Cloudburst

Wikipedia:Citation needed Cloud Maharashtra
Advertisement - You can get this game from STEAM

A cloudburst is an extreme amount of precipitation in a short period of time,[1] sometimes accompanied by hail and thunder, which is capable of creating flood conditions. Cloudbursts can quickly dump large amounts of water, e.g. 25 mm of precipitation corresponds to 25,000 metric tons per square kilometre (1 inch corresponds to 72,300 short tons over one square mile). However, cloudbursts are infrequent as they occur only via orographic lift or occasionally when a warm air parcel mixes with cooler air, resulting in sudden condensation. At times, a large amount of runoff from higher elevations is mistakenly conflated with a cloudburst. The term "cloudburst" arose from the notion that clouds were akin to water balloons and could burst, resulting in rapid precipitation. Though this idea has since been disproven, the term remains in use.

Properties

Rainfall rate equal to or greater than 100 millimetres (3.9 in) per hour is a cloudburst.[2][3] However, different definitions are used, e.g. the Swedish weather service SMHI defines the corresponding Swedish term "skyfall" as 1 mm per minute for short bursts and 50 mm per hour for longer rainfalls. The associated convective cloud can extend up to a height of 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) above the ground.[4]

During a cloudburst, more than 20 millimetres (0.79 in) of rain may fall in a few minutes. The results of cloudbursts can be disastrous. Cloudbursts are also responsible for flash flood creation.

Rapid precipitation from cumulonimbus clouds is possible due to the Langmuir precipitation process in which large droplets can grow rapidly by coagulating with smaller droplets which fall down slowly. It is not essential that cloudbursts occur only when a cloud clashes with a solid body like a mountain, they can also occur when hot water vapor mingles into the cold resulting in sudden condensation.

Record cloudbursts

Duration Rainfall Location Date
1 minute 1.5 inches (38.10 mm) Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe 26 November 1970
5.5 minutes 2.43 inches (61.72 mm) Port Bell, Panama 29 November 1911
15 minutes 7.8 inches (198.12 mm) Plumb Point, Jamaica 12 May 1916
20 minutes 8.1 inches (205.74 mm) Curtea de Argeș, Romania 7 July 1947
40 minutes 9.25 inches (234.95 mm) Guinea, Virginia, United States 24 August 1906
1 hour 9.84 inches (250 mm) Leh, Ladakh, India August 5, 2010 [5]
1 hour 5.67 inches (144 mm) Pune, Maharashtra, India September 29, 2010 [2]
1.5 hours 7.15 inches (182 mm) Pune, Maharashtra, India October 4, 2010 [2]
5 hours 15.35 inches (390 mm) La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina April 2, 2013 [6]
10 hours 57.00 inches (1,448 mm) Mumbai, Maharashtra, India July 26, 2005
24 hours 54.00 inches (1,372 mm) Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand, India July 1, 2016
13 hours 45.03 inches (1,144 mm) Foc-Foc, La Réunion January 8, 1966[7]
20 hours 91.69 inches (2,329 mm) Ganges Delta, Bangladesh/India January 8, 1966[8]
24 hours 73.62 inches (1,870 mm) Cilaos, La Réunion March, 1952

Locations

In the Indian subcontinent

In the Indian subcontinent, a cloudburst usually occurs when a monsoon cloud drifts northwards, from the Bay of Bengal or Arabian Sea across the plains, then onto the Himalayas and bursts, bringing rainfall as high as 75 millimetres per hour.[9]

Bangladesh

India

Pakistan

Colorado Piedmont

The uplands adjacent to the Front Range of Colorado and the streams which drain the Front Range are subject to occasional cloudbursts and flash floods. This weather pattern is associated with upslope winds bringing moisture northwestward from the Gulf of Mexico.[39]

See also

References

  1. ^ International Glossary of Hydrology. World Meteorological Organization and UNESCO. 2011. Archived from the original on 2005-11-03.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "It was a cloudburst, says weather scientest". news.saakaltimes.com. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
  3. ^ "What is a cloudburst?". Rediff News, India. August 1, 2005.
  4. ^ "Cloud Burst over Leh (Jammu & Kashmir)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-15.
  5. ^ "Cloudburst in Ladakh, India". articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. August 9, 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-25.
  6. ^ "Trágicas inundaciones en La Plata". tormentasdebuenosaires.blogspot.com.ar/. April 9, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  7. ^ "Records_clim". Meteo.fr. Archived from the original on 2010-06-06. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
  8. ^ a b Cloudburst In The Leh, WorldSnap, retrieved 9 September 2012
  9. ^ Cloudburst In The Subcontinent Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine Weathernotebook.org
  10. ^ a b c "'Cloud Burst' Breaks 53-year Record". Independent-bangladesh.com. 2009-07-29. Archived from the original on 2018-03-12. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  11. ^ syed akbar (2008-09-28). "Syed Akbar Journalist: Musi Floods 1908: What really happened that fateful day". Syedakbarindia.blog spot.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  12. ^ "Sorry". Indianexpress.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ Kanwar Yogendra (July 17, 2003). "40 killed in Himachal cloudburst, flash floods". Archived from the original on March 18, 2005.
  14. ^ "6 killed as cloudburst hits kotdwar area". Pakistannewshd.com. 2004-07-06. Retrieved 2012-08-13.{{|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
  15. ^ Ahmed, Zubair (May 19, 2006). "Mumbai commuters face travel woe". BBC. Mumbai, India.
  16. ^ "52 casualties confirmed in Ghanvi cloud burst". The Hindu. Chennai, India. August 16, 2007.
  17. ^ "38 die in Pithoragarh cloudburst, rescue works on". Indian Express. 2009-08-08. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  18. ^ "Doda cloudburst: 4 feared dead, several stranded". NDTV.com. 2011-06-09. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  19. ^ "Cloudburst in Manali: 2 dead, many missing". The Times Of India. July 21, 2011.
  20. ^ "A month's rain in 3 hours for Delhi, T3 flooded". NDTV. September 15, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  21. ^ "Fresh Landslides in Uttarakhand, toll 39". The Times of India. September 17, 2012.
  22. ^ "Uttarakhand floods: Toll reaches 550, more rains yet to come - Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". June 21, 2013.
  23. ^ "Uttarakhand: More than 550 killed; thousands still stranded". The Times Of India.
  24. ^ Source-Isro Report
  25. ^ "MEAN FOR THE PERIOD 1961 - 2009". Archived from the original on 2014-12-20. Retrieved 2014-12-15.
  26. ^ Tom Ross; Neal Lott; Axel Graumann; Sam McCown. "NCDC: Climate-Watch, July 2001". Ncdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  27. ^ Abdul Hameed (September 2007). SEVERE STORMS on dated 23rd July 2001 Islamabad pakistan (PDF). 4th European Conference on Severe Storms. Italy.
  28. ^ a b Naeem Shah. "Cloud Burst (Heavy Rain) Over Twin Cities Islamabad - Rawalpindi on 23rd July 2001" (PDF).
  29. ^ a b "Newsletter". July–December 2001. p. 7. Archived from the original on 2003-09-30.
  30. ^ "Effects of Heavy Rain in Karachi on 18 July 2009". Pakistannewshd.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  31. ^ a b "RAINFALL STATEMENT JULY-2010". Archived from the original on 2010-08-20.
  32. ^ "Rain wreaks havoc in Islamabad, cities in Punjab and KP". Awaztoday.com. 2011-08-09. Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  33. ^ "Pakmet.com.pk : Widespread Heavy rainfall in Southern sindh". Pakmet.com.pk. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  34. ^ "Pakmet.com.pk : 231 mm of rain recorded in Mithi in 24 Hours". Pakmet.com.pk. Retrieved 10 August 2011.[dead link]
  35. ^ "Pakmet.com.pk : Record breaking rainfall in Mithi". Pakmet.com.pk. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  36. ^ "Pakmet.com.pk : Record breaking heavy rain in Tando Ghulam Ali". Pakmet.com.pk. Archived from the original on 27 December 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  37. ^ "Pakmet.com.pk : Record breaking heavy rain in Sindh". Pakmet.com.pk. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  38. ^ "Urduwire.com : Record breaking rainfall in Jacobabad". Urduwire.com. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
  39. ^ "Floods in Colorado" Department of the Interior 1949