Casimir III the Great

Louis I of Hungary Kraków List of Polish monarchs
Casimir III the Great
Kazimierz III sarcophagus figure.jpg
Casimir's tomb effigy
King of Poland
Coronation25 April 1333
PredecessorWładysław the Elbow-high
SuccessorLouis I of Hungary
Born30 April 1310
Kowal, Poland
Died5 November 1370(1370-11-05) (aged 60)
Kraków, Poland
SpouseAldona of Lithuania
Adelaide of Hesse
Christina Rokiczana
Hedwig of Sagan
Elisabeth, Duchess of Pomerania
Anna, Countess of Cilli
FatherWładysław I the Elbow-high
MotherJadwiga of Kalisz
ReligionRoman Catholic
SignatureCasimir III the Great's signature

Casimir III the Great (Polish: Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. He was the third[1] son of Władysław I the Elbow-high and Jadwiga of Kalisz, and the last Polish king from the Piast dynasty.[2]

Casimir inherited a kingdom weakened by war and made it prosperous and wealthy. He reformed the Polish army and doubled the size of the kingdom. He reformed the judicial system and introduced a legal code, gaining the title "the Polish Justinian".[3] Casimir built extensively and founded the University of Kraków,[4] the oldest Polish university. He also confirmed privileges and protections previously granted to Jews and encouraged them to settle in Poland in great numbers.[5]

Casimir left no lawful male heir to his throne, producing only daughters. When he died in 1370 from an injury received while hunting, his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, succeeded him as king of Poland in personal union with Hungary.

The Great King

Poland (red) at the end of the reign of Casimir III (1370); Silesia (yellow) had been lost, but the kingdom was expanding to the east

He was born on 30 April 1310 in Kowal, Kuyavia.[6] He had two brothers who died in infancy and three sisters: Kunegunda, Elżbieta, and Jadwiga.[7] When Casimir attained the throne in 1333, his position was in danger, as his neighbours did not recognise his title and instead called him "king of Kraków". The kingdom was depopulated and exhausted by war, and the economy was ruined. In 1335, in the Treaty of Trentschin, Casimir was forced to relinquish his claims to Silesia "in perpetuity".

Casimir rebuilt the country and his kingdom became prosperous and wealthy, with great prospects for the future. He waged many victorious wars and doubled the size of the kingdom, mostly through addition of lands in modern-day Ukraine (then called the Duchy of Halych). Casimir built extensively during his reign, ordering the construction of over 40 castles, including many castles along the Trail of the Eagle's Nests, and he reformed the Polish army.

At the Sejm in Wiślica, on 11 March 1347, Casimir introduced reforms to the Polish judicial system and sanctioned civil and criminal codes for Great and Lesser Poland, earning the title "the Polish Justinian".[3] He founded the University of Kraków,[4] the oldest Polish University,[8] and he organized a meeting of kings in Kraków in 1364 at which he exhibited the wealth of the Polish kingdom.[9] Casimir is the only king in Polish history to both receive and retain the title of "Great", as Bolesław I is more commonly known as "the Brave".[10]


In 1355, in Buda, Casimir designated his nephew Louis I of Hungary as his successor should he produce no male heir, just as his father had with Charles I of Hungary to gain help against Bohemia. In exchange Casimir gained a favourable Hungarian attitude, needed in disputes with the hostile Teutonic Order and the Kingdom of Bohemia. At the time Casimir was 45 years old, and so producing a son did not seem unreasonable (he already had a few children).[11]

Casimir left no legal son, however, begetting five daughters instead. He tried to adopt his grandson, Casimir IV, Duke of Pomerania, in his last will. The child had been born to his second daughter, Elisabeth, Duchess of Pomerania, in 1351. This part of the testament was invalidated by Louis I of Hungary, however, who had traveled to Kraków quickly after Casimir died (in 1370) and bribed the nobles with future privileges. Casimir III also had a son-in-law, Louis VI of Bavaria, Margrave and Prince-elector of Brandenburg, who was considered a possible successor, but he was deemed ineligible as his wife, Casimir's daughter Cunigunde, had died in 1357 without issue.[12]

Thus King Louis I of Hungary became successor in Poland. Louis was proclaimed king upon Casimir's death in 1370, though Casimir's sister Elisabeth (Louis's mother) held much of the real power until her death in 1380.[13]

Society under the reign of Casimir

Wiec in reign of Casimir the Great

Casimir was facetiously named "the Peasants' King". He introduced the codes of law of Greater and Lesser Poland as an attempt to end the overwhelming superiority of the nobility. During his reign all three major classes — the nobility, priesthood, and bourgeoisie — were more or less counterbalanced, allowing Casimir to strengthen his monarchic position. He was known for siding with the weak when the law did not protect them from nobles and clergymen. He reportedly even supported a peasant whose house had been demolished by his own mistress, after she had ordered it to be pulled down because it disturbed her enjoyment of the beautiful landscape.[citation needed]

Relationship with Jews

Casimir's depiction on a seal

On 9 October 1334, Casimir confirmed the privileges granted to Jews in 1264 by Bolesław V the Chaste. Under penalty of death, he prohibited the kidnapping of Jewish children for the purpose of enforced Christian baptism, and he inflicted heavy punishment for the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. While Jews had lived in Poland since before his reign, Casimir allowed them to settle in Poland in great numbers and protected them as people of the king.[14] Casimir's legendary Jewish mistress Esterka remains unconfirmed by direct historical evidence.[15]

Relationships and children

Casimir III was married four times:

Aldona of Lithuania

On 30 April or 16 October 1325, Casimir married Aldona of Lithuania.[16] She was also known as Anna, possibly a baptismal name. She was a daughter of Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania and Jewna. They had two children:

Aldona died on 26 May 1339. Casimir remained a widower for two years.

Adelheid of Hesse

On 29 September 1341, Casimir married his second wife, Adelaide of Hesse. She was a daughter of Henry II, Landgrave of Hesse, and Elizabeth of Meissen. They had no children. Casimir started living separately from Adelaide soon after the marriage. Their loveless marriage lasted until 1356, when he declared himself divorced.[17]

Christina Rokiczana

After Casimir "divorced" Adelaide he married his mistress Christina Rokiczana, the widow of Miklusz Rokiczani, a wealthy merchant. Her own origins are unknown. Following the death of her first husband she had entered the court of Bohemia in Prague as a lady-in-waiting. Casimir brought her with him from Prague and convinced the abbot of the Benedictine abbey of Tyniec to marry them. The marriage was held in a secret ceremony but soon became known. Queen Adelaide renounced it as bigamous and returned to Hesse. Casimir continued living with Christine despite complaints by Pope Innocent VI on behalf of Queen Adelaide. This marriage lasted until 1363–64 when Casimir again declared himself divorced. They had no children.[18]

Hedwig of Żagań

In about 1365, Casimir married his fourth wife Hedwig of Żagań. She was a daughter of Henry V of Iron, Duke of Żagań and Anna of Mazovia. They had three children:

As Adelheid was still alive (and possibly Christina as well), the marriage to Hedwig was also considered bigamous. Because of this, the legitimacy of his three young daughters was disputed.[19] Casimir managed to have Anna and Kunigunde legitimated by Pope Urban V on 5 December 1369. Jadwiga the younger was legitimated by Pope Gregory XI on 11 October 1371 (after Casimir's death).[20]

Title and style

Casimir's full title was: Casimir by the grace of God king of Poland and Russia (Ruthenia), lord and heir of the land of Kraków, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Kuyavia, Pomerania (Pomerelia). The title in Latin was: Kazimirus, Dei gratia rex Polonie et Russie, nec non Cracovie, Sandomirie, Siradie, Lancicie, Cuiavie, et Pomeranieque Terrarum et Ducatuum Dominus et Heres.[21]

Popular culture


Computer games

See also


  1. ^ English, Edward D. (2005). "Casimir III the Great". Encyclopedia of the medieval world. Facts On File, New York. p. 156. ISBN 0-8160-4690-5
  2. ^ Halina Lerski (1996). "Casimir III the Great". Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945. ABC-CLIO Press. pp. 249–250. ISBN 0313034567. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  3. ^ a b Saxton, L. C. (1851). Fall of Poland; containing an analytical and a philosophical account of the causes which conspired in the ruin of that nation; together with a history of the country from its origin, in two volumes. I. New York: Charles Scribner publishing company. pp. 89.
  4. ^ a b Saxton, 1851, p. 535
  5. ^ Aharoni, Yohanan (2006-09-15). The Jewish People: An Illustrated History. A&C Black. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8264-1886-9.
  6. ^ "Kazimierz III Wielki (1310–1370)". Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  7. ^ "Kazimierz III Wielki (1310–1370)". Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  8. ^ Ness, Daniel; Lin, Chia-Ling (2015). International Education: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Issues and Systems. Routledge. p. 569. ISBN 9781317467519.
  9. ^ Nowakowska, Natalia (2007). Church, State and Dynasty in Renaissance Poland: The Career of Cardinal Fryderyk Jagiellon (1468-1503). Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 13. ISBN 9780754656449.
  10. ^ "Czy Kazimierz Wielki zasłużenie nosi przydomek "wielki"? Argumenty za". Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  11. ^ "Władca, który zasłużył na swój przydomek. Dziś rocznica śmierci Kazimierza Wielkiego". Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  12. ^ "Kunegunda, córka Kazimierza Wielkiego: nieszczęśliwa panna młoda". Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  13. ^ Lukowski, Jerzy; Zawadzki, Hubert (2016) [2001]. A concise history of Poland. Cambridge University Press. pp. 34. ISBN 9780521853323.
  14. ^ "In Poland, a Jewish Revival Thrives—Minus Jews". The New York Times. 12 July 2007. Probably about 70 percent of the world's European Jews, or Ashkenazi, can trace their ancestry to Poland — thanks to a 14th-century king, Casimir III, the Great, who drew Jewish settlers from across Europe with his vow to protect them as "people of the king",
  15. ^ "Esterka: między legendą a prawdą historyczną". Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  16. ^ Robert Frost, The Oxford History of Poland-Lithuania:Vol I, The Making of the Polish-Lithuanian Union, 1385-1569, (Oxford University Press, 2015), 28.
  17. ^ Rhode, Gotthold K.S. "Casimir III". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  18. ^ "Krystyna Rokiczana. Romans Kazimierza z piękną Czeszką zakończony bigamicznym małżeństwem". Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  19. ^ "Nieszczęśliwy małżonek. Kazimierz Wielki – bigamista do kwadratu". Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  20. ^ Pope Gregory XI: the Failure of Tradition ISBN 978-0-819-15463-7 p. 119
  22. ^ "PEŁNA OBSADA I TWÓRCY". Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  23. ^ "SCHINDLER'S LIST SCRIPT" (PDF). Retrieved 29 March 2020.