Caryophyllales

Enlarge Flowering plant Amaranthaceae
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Caryophyllales
Dianthus caryophyllus L (Clove pink).JPG
Dianthus caryophyllus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Superasterids
Order: Caryophyllales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl[1]
Suborders

Caryophyllineae
Polygonineae

Synonyms

Centrospermae

Caryophyllales (/ˌkærifɪˈllz/ KARR-ee-oh-fil-AY-leez)[2] is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations, amaranths, ice plants, beets, and many carnivorous plants. Many members are succulent, having fleshy stems or leaves.

Description

The members of Caryophyllales include about 6% of eudicot species.[3] This order is part of the core eudicots.[4] Currently, the Caryophyllales contains 37 families, 749 genera, and 11,620 species[5] The monophyly of the Caryophyllales has been supported by DNA sequences, cytochrome c sequence data and heritable characters such as anther wall development and vessel-elements with simple perforations.[6]

Circumscription

As with all taxa, the circumscription of Caryophyllales has changed within various classification systems. All systems recognize a core of families with centrospermous ovules and seeds. More recent treatments have expanded the Caryophyllales to include many carnivorous plants.

Systematists were undecided on whether Caryophyllales should be placed within the rosid complex or sister to the asterid clade.[6] The possible connection between sympetalous angiosperms and Caryophyllales was presaged by Bessey, Hutchinson, and others; as Lawrence relates: "The evidence is reasonably conclusive that the Primulaceae and the Caryophyllaceae have fundamentally the same type of gynecia, and as concluded by Douglas (1936)(and essentially Dickson, 1936) '...the vascular pattern and the presence of locules at the base of the ovary point to the fact that the present much reduced flower of the Primulaceae has descended from an ancestor which was characterized by a plurilocular ovary and axial placentation. This primitive flower might well be found in centrospermal stock as Wernham, Bessy, and Hutchinson have suggested.' "[7]

Caryophyllales is separated into two suborders: Caryophyllineae and Polygonineae.[6] These two suborders were formerly (and sometimes still are) recognized as two orders, Polygonales and Caryophyllales.[6]

Cactaceae native to the middle region of South America, at Marsh Botanical Garden. Cactaceae are a plant family, under the order Caryophyllales.

APG IV

Kewaceae, Macarthuriaceae, Microteaceae, and Petiveriaceae were added in APG IV. [8]

APG III

As circumscribed by the APG III system (2009), this order includes the same families as the APG II system (see below) plus the new families, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae, Talinaceae, and Anacampserotaceae.[1]

APG II

As circumscribed by the APG II system (2003), this order includes well-known plants like cacti, carnations, spinach, beet, rhubarb, sundews, venus fly traps, and bougainvillea. Recent molecular and biochemical evidence has resolved additional well-supported clades within the Caryophyllales.

Cactaceaeː Gymnocalycium Matoensea at Yale's Marsh Botanical Garden.

APG

Carnegiea gigantea
Sweet William Dwarf from the family Caryophyllaceae
A flower of Dianthus

This represents a slight change from the APG system, of 1998

Cronquist

Chenopodium album

The Cronquist system (1981) also recognised the order, with this circumscription:

The difference with the order as recognized by APG lies in the first place in the concept of "order". The APG favours much larger orders and families, and the order Caryophyllales sensu APG should rather be compared to subclass Caryophyllidae sensu Cronquist.

A part of the difference lies with what families are recognized. The plants in the Stegnospermataceae and Barbeuiaceae were included in Cronquist's Phytolaccaceae. The Chenopodiaceae (still recognized by Cronquist) are included in Amaranthaceae by APG.

New to the order (sensu APG) are the Asteropeiaceae and Physenaceae, each containing a single genus, and two genera from Cronquist's order Nepenthales.

Earlier circumscriptions

Earlier systems, such as the Wettstein system, last edition in 1935, and the Engler system, updated in 1964, had a similar order under the name Centrospermae.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
  2. ^ Clarke, Ian; Lee, Helen (2003). Name that Flower: The Identification of Flowering Plants. Melbourne University Publishing. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-522-85060-4.
  3. ^ "Caryophyllales". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.
  4. ^ Judd., W.; Campbell, C.; Kellogg, E.; Stevens, P.; Donoghue, M. (2008). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach (3rd ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-87893-407-2.
  5. ^ Stephens, P.F. (2020). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website". Version 14. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d Juan, R.; Pastor, J.; Alaiz, M.; Vioque, J. (1 September 2007). "Electrophoretic characterization of Amaranthus L. seed proteins and its systematic implications". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 155 (1): 57–63. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2007.00665.x.
  7. ^ Lawrence, G.H.M (1960). Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. Macmillan. p. 660.
  8. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.