Canada–Spain relations

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Canada–Spain relations
Map indicating locations of Canada and Spain

Canada

Spain

Canada–Spain relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Canada and the Kingdom of Spain. Both nations are mutual members of NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the United Nations.

History

In July 1774, Spanish naval officer Juan José Pérez Hernández was the first European to encounter the archipelago of Haida Gwaii (formerly known as the Queen Charlotte Islands) while on his way to Alaska.[1] After the initial voyage, several other Spanish voyages were to take place along the British Columbia Coast. In 1789, Spain created two settlements in Santa Cruz de Nuca and Fort San Miguel, both located in Nootka Sound. At the extent of the Spanish Empire in the Americas, Spain controlled territories from the farthest tip of South America to present day southern Alberta and Saskatchewan.[2] In July 1935, Canada and Spain established diplomatic relations.[3]

Memorial to the Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion in Ottawa

From 1936–1939, Spain was embroiled in a civil war between the Republican faction and Nationalist faction. Canada, was officially neutral during the conflict, however, over 1,700 Canadians volunteered and fought for the Republican faction in Spain.[4][5] At first, the Canadian volunteers joined the primarily American Lincoln Battalion (also known as the Abraham Lincoln Brigade) and the George Washington Battalion before creating a primarily Canadian brigade known as the Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion (Mac-Paps).[5] During that time, the Canadian Parliament passed the "Foreign Enlistment Act in 1937" outlawing participation by Canadians in foreign wars.[5] During the civil war, approximately 700 Canadians lost their lives fighting.[5] In 1938, the Republican Faction was taking heaving loses and realized that they were losing the war. Several Canadian fighters left Spain and returned to Canada before General Francisco Franco entered Madrid and ended the war in April 1939.[5]

Since the end of World War II, Canada and Spain enjoy friendly and close diplomatic relations. In December 1959, both nations eliminated visa requirements for their citizens.[3] In March 1995, relations between both nations reached an all-time low when a Spanish fishing boat called the "Estai" with a crew of 45 was seized just outside of Canada's Exclusive Economic Zone because the Canadian government accused Spain of overfishing turbots near its waters, triggering the Turbot War (Guerra del fletán in Spanish).[6][7] During the crisis, Spain imposed visas on Canadian citizens visiting Spain and threatened to break diplomatic relations with Canada.[8] Spain began sending Serviola-class patrol boat to protect their trawlers when Canada began to cut the nets of Spanish trawlers fishing in the area.[9] Support from the European Union was split during the crisis, with the United Kingdom and Ireland supporting Canada while mainland Europe and Iceland supported Spain. During negations between Canada and the European Union to resolve the issue, the crew of Estai posted a $500,000 bail and returned to Spain. The crisis was resolved when Canada and the European Union agreed to a deal on April 5. Under this agreement Spain was forced to leave the disputed zone and Canada's right to eject foreign fishing vessels from the area using military force was accepted. Under the deal Canada's own Greenland turbot quota was reduced, and they refunded the $500,000 fine to the owners of the Estai.[9] Since the crisis, Canadian-Spanish relations improved and in 2007, a Memorandum of Understanding on Fisheries Cooperation was signed between both nations.[10]

High-level visits

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez meeting during the 2018 Brussels summit.

Prime Ministerial visits from Canada to Spain[11]

Prime Ministerial and Royal visits from Spain to Canada[12][13][14][3]

Trade

In 2018, trade between Canada and Spain totaled €3.4 billion Euros.[3] Canada's exports to Spain include: aircraft and parts, ores and ash, cereals, machinery equipment and energy related products. Spain's exports to Canada include: pharmaceutical products, combustibles, oil and minerals, beverages and electronic equipment.[3][15] Canadian multinational companies such as Bombardier Inc., BlackBerry and Thomson Reuters operate in Spain, whereas Spanish multinational company Zara operates in Canada. In 2014, Canada and the European Union (which includes Spain) concluded an agreement on a free trade agreement known as the "Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA)".[16]

Resident diplomatic missions

See also

References

  1. ^ Dictionary of Canadian Biography: Juan José Pérez Hernández
  2. ^ Library of Congress: Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase
  3. ^ a b c d e Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores de España: Canadá (in Spanish)
  4. ^ Canada and the Spanish Civil War: An Introduction
  5. ^ a b c d e Canada and the Spanish Civil War
  6. ^ Canada and Spain Face Off Over Fishing Zone
  7. ^ Canada, Spain, and the European Union in the Turbot War
  8. ^ El País: España impone el visado a Canadá y amenaza con romper relaciones diplomáticas (in Spanish)
  9. ^ a b The Turbot War
  10. ^ Fisheries and Oceans Canada: Memoranda of Understanding (Spain) Archived July 30, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Canadian-Spanish relations will improve as the two governments resolve...
  12. ^ Spanish King in Canada (in Spanish) Archived August 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Spanish Crown Prince Leaves for U.S., Canada
  14. ^ El País: Aznar elogia a Canadá por saber compaginar unidad y pluralismo (in Spanish)
  15. ^ "Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada–Spain". Archived from the original on 2016-08-14. Retrieved 2016-06-26.
  16. ^ European Commission: Canada
  17. ^ Embassy of Canada in Madrid
  18. ^ Embassy of Spain in Ottawa
  19. ^ Consulate-General of Spain in Montreal
  20. ^ Consulate-General of Spain in Toronto