Căile Ferate Române
|Group of public companies|
|Predecessor||Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways|
|Founded||Companies founded at 1 April 1880|
|Headquarters||Palatul CFR, Piaţa Gării de Nord, Bucharest, Romania|
|Dan Marian Costescu (Director General, CFR Călători)|
Traian Preoteasa (Director General, CFR Marfă)
Ioan Pintea (Director General, CFR S.A. - Infrastructură)
|Products||Rail transport, cargo transport, services|
|Owner||The Romanian state|
Number of employees
Map of Romania's railway system
|Dates of operation||1854–|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Length||22,247 km (13,824 mi)|
|Transport in Romania|
Căile Ferate Române (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈkə.ile feˈrate roˈmɨne]; abbreviated as the CFR) is the state railway carrier of Romania. As of 2014, the railway network of Romania consists of 10,777 km (6,697 mi), of which 4,029 km (2,504 mi) (37.4%) are electrified. The total track length is 22,247 km (13,824 mi), of which 8,585 km (5,334 mi) (38.5%) are electrified. The CIA World Factbook lists Romania with the 23rd largest railway network in the world. The network is significantly interconnected with other European railway networks, providing pan-European passenger and freight services. CFR as an entity has been operating since 1880, even though the first railway on current Romanian territory was opened in 1854. CFR is divided into four autonomous companies:
- CFR Călători, responsible for passenger services;
- CFR Marfă, responsible for freight transport;
- CFR Infrastructură or CFR S.A., manages the infrastructure on the Romanian railway network; and
- Societatea Feroviară de Turism, or SFT, which manages scenic and tourist railways.
CFR is headquartered in Bucharest and has regional divisions centered in Bucharest, Brașov, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Craiova, Galați, Iași and Timișoara. Its International Union of Railways code is 53-CFR.
Railways in the nineteenth century
The first railway line on Romania's present-day territory was opened on 20 August 1854 and ran between Oravița in Banat and Baziaș, a port on the Danube. The line, which had a length of 62.5 km, was used solely for the transportation of coal. From 12 January 1855, the line was operated by Imperial Royal Privileged Austrian State Railway Company, the Banat province being at that time part of the Austrian Empire. After several improvements in the following months, the line was opened to passenger traffic from 1 November 1856.
Between 1864 and 1880, several railways were constructed in the area of the Kingdom of Romania. On 1 September 1865, the English company John Trevor-Barkley began construction on the Bucharest–Giurgiu line. Commissioned by the King of Romania, the line was opened to traffic on 26 August 1869. The Bucharest-Giurgiu line was the first railway built on Romanian territory at that time (considering that the Oraviţa-Baziaş line was part of Austria-Hungary, even though it now lies on Romanian territory).
In September 1866, the Romanian Parliament voted for the construction of a 915 km railway, from Vârciorova in the south to Roman in the north, via Ploiești, Bucharest, Buzău, Brăila, Galați and Tecuci, all important population centres. The price for the construction was at that time 270,000 gold francs per kilometre and was contracted to the German Strousberg consortium. The line was opened in various stages, the first stage (Ploiesti–Bucharest–Galați–Roman) being opened to traffic on 13 September 1872, while the Vârciorova–Ploiesti segment was opened some time later, on 9 May 1878. The Vârciorova-Roman line was an important part of Romania's rail infrastructure because it spanned the entire Kingdom and provided an important connection for passengers and freight between several significant Wallachian and Moldavian cities.
On 10 September 1868, Bucharest's Gara de Nord (North Station) was finalised. In January 1880, the Romanian Parliament voted to transfer the ownership of the Vârciorova-Roman line from the private administration of the Strousberg consortium to state ownership, under the administration of CFR. 1880 therefore marks the start of the Căile Ferate Române institution which survives to this date. The first administration of CFR was made up of Ioan Kalinderu, Eugeniu Stătescu and Ștefan Fălcoianu.
In May 1868, the Romanian state concluded an agreement with another German consortium, known as the "Offenheim Consortium", for the construction of several shorter railways in the region of Moldavia. The lines, which had a total length of 224 km, would run from Roman to Ițcani, from Pașcani to Iași and from Verești to Botoșani. In 1870, the Iași railway station was inaugurated and the lines were progressively opened from December 1869 to November 1871. Due to the poor management of the lines by the Offenheim Consortium, they were placed under the management of CFR in January 1889.
Meanwhile, during the Romanian War of Independence in 1877, Romania annexed the region of Dobrogea, which had previously belonged to the Ottoman Empire. The Romanian state placed under the management of CFR the Constanța–Cernavodă line, which had been opened during the Ottoman times in 1860. The Bucharest-Giurgiu line, the first line constructed in the Kingdom of Romania, was also placed under the administration of CFR during this time.
Hence, by 1889, the Romanian state became the owner of all of the lines in the Kingdom of Romania, the railway system having a total length of 1,377 km.
Railways in the early twentieth century
In 1918, the historical regions of Transylvania, Banat, Bassarabia and Bucovina united with the Kingdom of Romania to form Greater Romania. As a result, all railway lines in these regions, previously under the ownership of Austria-Hungary or the Russian Empire, were placed under the administration of CFR. This event was significant for Romanian railways because it meant that the large Arad rolling stock and steel factory, previously located on Austro-Hungarian territory, was now part of Romania, and was consequently used to produce a wide range of rolling stock and locomotives for CFR.
During this time, various railways were "doubled"— that is, double tracks were introduced on routes to permit a greater flow of traffic. The first line to be doubled was the Bucharest–Ploiești–Câmpina line, where doubling was completed in 1912. In the period between the wars, various other lines were doubled, including:
- Constanța–Cernavodă (1931)
- Adjud–Tecuci (1933)
- Teiuş–Apahida (1940)
- Câmpina–Brașov (1941)
- Buzău–Mărășești (1942)
During the 1920s and 1930s CFR also bought several new locomotives and cars, embarking on a plan of widespread modernisation. Diesel traction was introduced, and the Malaxa high-speed DMUs (a modernised version of which are still in use as commuter trains in Banat) were built.
CFR and the Holocaust (circa 1940s)
CFR (Romanian Railways) was involved in the transport of Jewish and Romani people to concentration camps in Romanian Old Kingdom, Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, and Transnistria (Romania). In a notable example, after the Iasi pogrom events, Jews were forcibly loaded onto freight cars with planks hammered in place over the windows and traveled for seven (7) days in unimaginable conditions. Many died and were gravely affected by lack of air, blistering heat, lack of water, food or medical attention. These veritable death trains arrived to their destinations Podu Iloaiei and Călăraşi with only one-fifth of their passengers alive. No official apology was released yet by CFR for their role in the Holocaust in Romania.
Railways in Communist Romania
After Romania became a Communist republic in 1947, there was quite a significant amount of investment in railway infrastructure, often to the detriment of other forms of infrastructure. During this period, railways were seen as the symbol of Romania's rapid industrialisation under Communist leaders Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej and later by Nicolae Ceaușescu. Aside from an increase in train traffic and the construction of various new lines, especially in rural areas, the bulk of electrification and line doubling occurred during the Communist period. Also, railways in Southern Dobruja was left to Bulgaria in 1940 and ones in Northern Bucovina and Bassarabia were to the Soviet Union in 1947.
Electrification and track doubling
The first line to be electrified on the Romanian railway network was the Bucharest–Brașov line, which was used by a significant amount of passenger and freight traffic. Works on electrification started in 1959, and the first electrified segment, from Brașov to Predeal, opened on 9 December 1965. By 20 April 1966, a further segment was electrified, from Predeal to Câmpina. The entire line was electrified by 16 February 1969, at a frequency of 50 Hz and voltage of 25 kV.
Various lines were also supplemented with double tracks to permit a wider flow of traffic, including:
- Făurei–Galaţi (1971)
- Pantelimon–Cernavodă (1971)
- Bucharest–Roșiori–Craiova (1972)
- Chitila–Golești (1972)
- Brașov–Câmpul Libertății (1974)
- Adjud–Suceava (1975)
- Dragalina–Călăraşi (70s)
By the mid-1970s, steam traction disappeared completely out of mainstream use, being replaced by standardised diesel and electric locomotives and cars, most of which were built in Romania, at the Astra factory (Astra Arad) in Arad.
CFR after 1989
After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which resulted in the fall of Communism, Romania was left with one of the largest, most dense and most frequently used railway networks in Europe; but at the same time having relatively outdated infrastructure. This, combined with the economic decline that Romania faced in the 1990s due to its transition to a market economy, resulted in CFR entering a period of relative decline. Several little-used routes, especially in rural areas, were cut back, and rolling stock, most of which was acquired in the 1970s, entered a period of disrepair. CFR's image, both domestically and abroad, suffered greatly, due to reports of dilapidated trains, poor service and general disarray of management.
This situation continued until the year 1998, when Societatea Naţională a Căilor Ferate Române (The National Society of Romanian Railways) was split into five independently administered companies : Compania Națională de Căi Ferate "CFR" SA (National Railway Company "CFR" – dealing with infrastructure), CFR Călători (CFR Passenger Services – the operator of passenger trains), CFR Marfă (Freight transport company), CFR Gevaro (Services linked with restaurant cars) and SAAF (dealing with excess rolling stock to be sold, leased or scrapped). After this, the situation of Romanian railways improved significantly, mainly spurred on by Romania's economic boom after the year 2000, which permitted a considerable amount of government investment in railways and has led CFR to once again become one of the most successful railway operators in the region.
Since 1989, a number of small branch lines have been closed— especially those designated for industrial purposes or having a narrow gauge. This has been generally done due to greater competition from private bus services as well as generally low passenger numbers on those lines. The narrow gauge line from Turda to Abrud, for example, could not hope to compete with the private car or bus, the journey time being just short of six and a half hours for the 93 kilometre trip (CFR Timetable 1988, table 309). As of 2013 the Turda - Abrud journey by bus takes 2 hours and 15 minutes. http://www.autogari.ro/Transport/Abrud-Turda
Some other line closures were thought imminent especially on the branch lines in Timiș county, which were generally very old, little-used and heavily damaged by the 2005 floods in that area; but most seem to have been reprieved and now are operated by private operators. 1000–1500 km of railway lines have been divested of CFR control and a few have closed completely since 1990, most of which were in rural areas. Overall however, actual railway closures in Romania have been much less drastic than in other former Communist bloc countries (such as Hungary and Eastern Germany); indeed the "closure" figures given include lines which have been taken over by private operators and continue to operate (2010). Some standard gauge lines have in fact reopened since closure in the 1990s and some narrow-gauge tracks have recently been reopened by SFT (CFR's Railway Tourism Society) for tourism, but are only run occasionally, about twice a month (lines include Abrud-Câmpeni, Târgu Mureș-Band or Moldovița-Vama). All forestry railroads (căi ferate forestiere in Romanian) still in operation after 1989 have been privatized and sold to the forestry companies. Some, such as the Vasser Valley Scenic Railroad, have since become significant tourist attractions.
In the year 2000 some 47,560 people were employed by CFR. By July 2010 this had reduced to 25,382 (see report below) in part due to the divesting of certain operations to other (private) companies. Other economies continue and are envisaged and are set out in the report Strategia de restructurare a domeniului feroviar August 2010 published by the Romanian ministry of transport (August 2010).
In the early 2000s, CFR embarked on a comprehensive modernization programme in order to improve its image, which was, both internationally and domestically, plagued by reports of poor service and outdated rolling stock. The first phases of the modernization included a refurbishment of a large number of Rapid and InterCity rolling stock, as well as a general expansion of IC services to form a Romania-wide express network.
To strengthen the growth of the Romanian train network, CFR acquired in early 2003 several new Siemens Desiro trainsets, some of which were assembled in Arad, Romania. Nicknamed "Săgeata Albastră" (Blue Arrow), they are currently used on both Regio and InterRegio services for short and medium distances. The Desiro trainsets were used as the icons of CFR's modernisation, despite criticism that CFR should not have used the Desiro trainsets, which are diesel multiple units, on mainline express services, as they are designed mainly for short-distance commuter rail, as seen by their fairly hard seating, low speed, and poor noise insulation. CFR responded to this by introducing, in late 2004, a number of new Desiro trainsets that had better sound insulation and 70 seats, instead of 110 seats, thereby increasing the width and pitch of the seats. To this date, CFR continues to use Desiro trains on medium-distance routes, even though it has replaced them on several long-distance routes by other refurbished rolling stock.
Aside from the Desiro, CFR has also bought in the past few years 80 new sleeping cars (WLABmee type), couchettes, InterCity cars, as well as double-decker cars to use InterRegio trains of a high volume of passengers. The new CFR sleepers are some of the most modern in Europe, having air-conditioning, LCD screens and modern showers in each compartment.
Apart from improvements in rolling stock, CFR has also bought or modernised several locomotive classes, including the widespread Class 40 and Class 41 electric locomotives.
Part of the CFR modernisation programme is the XSELL system, which seeks to establish a Romania-wide electronic ticketing system. The XSELL system was launched at Bucharest North station (Gara de Nord) in November 2004, and is now in use in almost all major railway stations in Romania.
In 2003, Romanian mobile phone operator Connex GSM Romania, now Vodafone, struck a deal with CFR to provide quick mobile services to the CFR timetable and booking system. A 24-hour hotline operates where customers of Connex can call a certain three-digit number (652) and get real-time information on train routes, timetables, station platform departures, delays, prices and ticketing information and booking of trains from Bucharest North station. Orange Romania has signed a similar agreement in early 2004.
CFR services continue to improve, with the company reaching a turning point in its business strategy and services being some of the best in the region. However, some people have raised concerns that CFR, which has not reached profitability yet, does not have the means to finance ongoing infrastructural modernization, especially in the context of a government that is, at present, keener to develop road infrastructure at the expense of railways.
CFR initiated a major infrastructure project in April 2006 – the modernization of the Bucharest – Constanța railway line, in order to improve the maximum speed attainable on the line (from 140 km/h now to 200 km/h in 2008) and increase the capacity of the line. Completion date is estimated to be mid-2008.
Although passenger railway services are not a state monopoly in Romania, CFR remains the only passenger carrier operating at a national level. However, after the reorganization of CFR in 2011, around 15% of Romanian railway tracks have been leased to private companies. These are known as non-interoperable tracks (linii neinteroperabile in Romanian). The main operators are: S.C. Regional S.R.L., S.C. Transferoviar Grup S.A., S.C. Regio Călători S.R.L., and S.C. Servtransinvest S.A. which now operate a significant number (especially Regio Călători) of routes . Early transfers to these companies included Zărnești–Brașov, Brașov–Întorsura Buzăului, Sfântu Gheorghe–Brețcu, Sighișoara–Odorheiu Secuiesc, Șibot–Cugir, Blaj–Praid, Galaţi–Bârlad, Buzău–Nehoiaşu, Iaşi–Dorohoi, Timișoara Nord–Nerău, Satu Mare–Bixad, Arad–Nădlac, Bistriţa Bârgăului-Bistriţa Nord–Luduş, Arad–Brad, Roșiori Nord–Piatra Olt and many others lines. On these lines, CFR is not allowed to operate its trains—companies which have leased the tracks have a virtual monopoly on their usage. Aside from CFR Călători, 12 other companies provide local passenger services, on non-interoperable tracks, even though none of these services exceed 40 km in line length. 28 private companies, including Petromidia and Servtrans, operate freight transport services on main lines with their own rolling stock, leasing usage rights from CFR.
September 2014 saw the publication of the government report: Master Plan General de Transport al României.
On the face of it the lengthy report envisages reduction of passenger services on 25% to 40% of the lines. The 'small print' reveals however that closures will not happen overnight or even over the next few years (there is no closure schedule in the report); and closures will only occur if private operators or local authority/perhaps EU financial support cannot be obtained. In addition the report has costed major improvements to the long-distance network considerably to reduce journey times. These projects include recommencing work on the abandoned construction (90% completed in the 1990s) of the 39 km link line from Râmnicu Vâlcea to Valcele which will reduce the journey from the Capital to Sibiu by some 78 km and journey times by at least 90 minutes.
CFR Călători, the passenger service division of CFR, operates seven types of passenger train, both on Romania's territory, with rolling stock and locomotives, or internationally, with rolling stock. Also, CFR operates international trains on Romanian territory with its own locomotives. The train types vary in terms of speed and type of rolling stock.
In 2015, approximately 55 million passenger journeys were made with the company. In the same time 12 million further journeys were made using the private operators.
CFR train types are:
- Regio (R) – the trains have assigned numbers from 2000 to 9999
- InterRegio (IR) – the trains have assigned numbers from 200 to 499, 600 to 999, 1000 to 1999 and 10000 to 16999
- InterCity (IC) – numbered from 500 to 599, discontinued in December 2014
Regio trains (regional), formerly Personal trains (until December 2011), also known as commuter trains (navete or trenuri de navetiști), are the most abundant type of trains on the CFR passenger network. They are used for two main purposes, as shuttle, or commuter, trains, linking towns with neighbouring villages, and linking neighbouring cities with each other.
Personal trains (now Regio), have the lowest average speed (34.3 km/h in 2004) and the least comfortable (usually oldest) rolling stock, and have a reputation for being very slow, crowded and generally unkempt which is only gradually changing. Regio trains operate mostly on local routes and stop at every station. Train fares for this type are the cheapest, since no supplement is paid, only the base fee, based on distance. Seats are not reservable.
The rolling stock on Regio trains differs widely. On routes that link neighbouring cities with each other (such as Bucharest and Pitești), the quality of the rolling stock is much better than those services which provide a shuttle link between cities and rural areas (such as the Timișoara-Berzovia line).
Most Regio rolling stock consist of compartmented single and uncompartmented double-decker cars. Some train services of this type, especially on rural routes, only have 2nd class rolling stock (i.e., there are no 1st class carriages). As of 2007, most Regio trains have only 2nd class cars. The livery of most Regio cars is painted in the color scheme of CFR Calatori (blue and grey), with the rolling stock built in the 1970s and 1980s. Some very short rural routes in Romania's Bukovina region use rolling stock from the 1940s and 1950s, refitted with bus seats and operating like railbuses. CFR is refurbishing a range of double-decker Personal cars, that will be used on Personal and Accelerat trains. The refurbished cars, painted in exactly the same livery as the old ones, have been introduced since 2003, and are cleaner, although they still use most of the old fittings. Some routes (like Sibiu–Craiova) are operated by Desiro trainsets whereas others are operated by modernized electric trainsets.
The new private operators also use the term regio using mainly (refurbished) railbuses.
InterRegional trains (IR), formerly Accelerat and Rapid trains (until December 2011), are used for medium and long-distance services that stop only in towns or cities. InterRegional trains have higher speeds. They are also more expensive, requiring the payment of a supplement alongside the base fee. Some services of the InterRegional type require a reservation. InterRegional trains are also used for cross-regional long-distance routes (for example, Timișoara to București). Despite the long distances, InterRegional trains tend to stop in every town (even though they bypass villages) and hence are very popular, though they are seldom used for express travel between two large cities.
Since 2009, the InterRegio 1821/1822 from Arad to Constanța via Deva, Tîrgu Jiu, Craiova and Bucharest also travels to Constanța with an extra sleeperette car and sleeper car. The InterRegio rolling stock is formed of both single-decker cars painted in the painting scheme of CFR Calatori (blue and gray). Single-decker cars are all corridor-type, with the old cars having 8 seats per compartment in second class and 6 in first class whereas the new cars have 6 seats per compartment regardless of class (this type of coaches are used now for Regio Trains and rarely on InterRegio Trains). Double-decker cars have 4 seats per row in an open plan.
In early 2005, it introduced a new double-decker car for medium-distance, highly used Interregional, later (former accelerat) routes such as Bucharest–Predeal. Desiro trainsets have also been introduced on medium-distance InterRegional routes in Transylvania and Moldavia (Iași – Vatra Dornei). Longer-distance InterRegional trains often have couchettes, and sleepers started to be added again to consists after a lengthy absence. Dining cars are never used on these trains. In the 2010 schedule, many short and medium distance routes (such as Bucharest–Craiova, Bucharest–Râmnicu Vâlcea–Sibiu, Bucharest–Tulcea, Craiova–Sibiu, Timișoara–Sibiu, Cluj-Napoca–Timișoara) were served by modernized double-decker cars or Desiro trainsets. Some long-distance trains (Bucharest–Timișoara, Bucharest–Târgu Jiu–Arad, Bucharest–Cluj-Napoca–Satu Mare, Bucharest–Iași, Bucharest–Vatra Dornei, Iași–Timișoara, Sighetu Marmației – Bucharest) also use modernized Rapid-style cars.
Rolling stock on InterRegional trains has recently been the object of CFR's modernisation plan. Various classes of cars have been refurbished, and fitted with air-conditioning, ecological toilets, etc. However, a small and rapidly declining number of Rapid rolling stock, mainly on lesser-used routes, remains fairly aged and outdated. As of 2004, Siemens Desiro DMUs have been introduced on medium-distance Rapid routes. Most Rapid rolling stocks are painted in the painting scheme of CFR Calatori (blue and gray). All cars are uncompartmented and are usually air-conditioned. Sleepers, couchettes and dining-cars are available on most long routes.
From Sighetu Marmatiei the Rapid train needs over 21 hours to complete the 850 km trip, from Satu Mare nearly 22 hours to complete the 928 km trip. from Oradea over 19 hours to complete the 913 km trip, from Timișoara Nord over 15 hours to complete the 795 km trip.
In the case of travelling such a long distance as mentioned above, it is recommended to book a sleeperette (the passenger can choose between 4–6 passengers in a compartment). The 6 passenger-compartment is the cheapest option for a higher comfort. Fares and timetables can be checked on www.cfrcalatori.ro (click the English flag).
InterCity (IC) was CFR's premier train type and was used for daytime express services between major cities, as well as shuttle services between Bucharest and the Black Sea coast and the Carpathian mountain resorts. InterCity trains typically only stopped in large cities (generally of over 100,000 inhabitants). InterCity trains were the fastest out of all the train types, having an average speed of 87 km/h in 2004, and also used the most modern and comfortable rolling stock, rivalling the premier services of other European carriers. Due to this, InterCity prices included a significant supplement alongside the base fee.
The InterCity rolling stock was either new or refurbished (all IC rolling stock was built after 1995), with air-conditioning, power-plugs (in both 1st and 2nd class carriages) and plush bucket armchairs, as well as complimentary newspapers, free meals and airplane-like service in first class. These trains generally had a reputation for their high levels of comfort, cleanliness and service. The InterCity standard livery was usually grey and blue, especially in the case of the C160-class rolling stock, which is the newest type. Most InterCity rolling stock was uncompartmented. When CFR bought the Desiro DMUs, they were mostly used for InterCity trains, but due to complaints related to their comfort levels, they were replaced with standard cars for most routes and now the DESIRO DMUs are used for the Regio trains.
High-passenger and international IC services, such as the Bucharest-Constanța route, used the Romanian-built Astra AVA-200 cars, which have a maximum speed of 200 km/h and are the most comfortable rolling stock in the CFR fleet. In fact, according to Friends of CFR, a Romanian railway journal, there was a considerable downgrading in quality when the Bucharest–Vienna IC service switched from being operated by CFR to being run by Austrian Railways (ÖBB) in 2003, leading to numerous complaints that the route should revert to CFR cars instead of Austrian ÖBB cars.
Beginning with December 2006, the company introduced the business service on certain IC routes (București Nord – Timișoara Nord, București Nord – Oradea). These wagons were refurbished by CFR Griviţa and they provided two classes: standard and standard exclusive. According to class, these rail cars provide leather or fabric-covered armchairs, monitors, individual displays for every seat, 4 channel audio system with earphones, wireless internet access, bar, air conditioning, and they were equipped with an elevator for disabled travellers. As of 1 June 2014, InterCity trains used to operate on the following routes:
Before early 2003, there was also a train type known as InterCityExpress (ICE), which ran from Bucharest to Constanța, but these have been discontinued and transformed into IC and later into IR, while maintaining the same rolling stock.
Because of the bad infrastructure as of 2015 InterCity trains are not in use anymore because the fare was too high. There are some trains which are running like InterCity but with InterRegio cost. Now the rolling stock used before 2015 for Intercity trains is used now for the InterRegio trains.
The speed limit for trains in Romania is 160 km/h. All other trains have a general speed limit of 120 km/h. Average operating speeds (including all stops in stations) according to CFR, are in 2018:
- 39 km/h for Regio trains
- 55 km/h for InterRegio trains
The longest train route, as of 2005, is the one between Iași, in the north-east, and Timișoara, in the west, which takes 18 hours with an Interregio train to complete. For example, the journey between Suceava Burdujeni and Bucharest is 447 km, and takes some 7 hours to complete at an average speed of 80 km/h.
Freight services in Romania are operated mostly by CFR Marfă, the freight division of CFR, as well as by 28 other private companies who operate on lines leased from CFR Infrastructură. The CFR Marfă fleet is made up of 987 locomotives, most of which were built in Romania or the former Yugoslavia. The fact that rail freight remains maintains a strong market share in Romania, as well as a number of efficiency reforms, has led CFR Marfă to perform quite well financially in recent years, even though it remains loss-making. In 2003, the CFR Marfă's net loss was 8.8 million new lei (approximately US$3 million), reduced from 141.5 million new lei in 2002.
Freight trains follow the same speed limits to those issued for passenger trains, although hazardous materials, explosive, nuclear, flammable, chemical or otherwise dangerous trains have a special regime. Most locomotives have a physical speed limit of 160 or 120 km/h, but freight trains are not usually running at speeds exceeding 100 km/h.
Locomotives and stock
CFR Călători (passenger services) and CFR Marfă (freight services) use a range of electric (known as LE), diesel electric (LDE), diesel hydraulic (LDH) and diesel mechanical (LDM/LDMM) locomotives. SFT (tourist railways division) uses steam locomotives (both narrow gauge and standard gauge) and diesel mechanical locomotives.
Each of the four CFR divisions have their own locomotives, and these are generally not interchanged. For example, a CFR Marfǎ locomotive should not be used to pull a CFR Cǎlǎtori train. In practice however, this rule does not hold, and frequently the companies use other rolling stock through informal lease agreements. Moreover, private companies' rolling stock is used at times, usually because of emergencies (such as a locomotive breaking down and requiring a replacement to keep the line open, and an unused private locomotive being closer).
Most of the electric locomotives employed by CFR were built by Electroputere Craiova (known as EA-type) and Rade Končar Zagreb (known as EC-type). All are built for standard gauge (1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)) and run using a catenary wire at 50 Hz 25 kV AC. All trains have electric heating. CFR owns 1,066 electric locomotives, 933 of which were built by Electroputere (Class 40, 41, 42) and 133 built by Končar (Class 43, 44, 46).
Classes 60 and 62 have as prime mover a twin-bank cylinder Sulzer 12LDA28 diesel engine rated at 2100 hp@750rpm, being derated from its nominal power by a smaller turbocharger and a lower max rpm. The difference between classes 60 and 62 is that the class 62 features traction motors certified and capable of pulling passenger coaches at 120 km/h instead of the 100 km/h allowed for class 60.
Classes 63 and 65 are modified by replacing Sulzer engines with 2 stroke 8 cylinders EMD 8-710G which develop 2150 hp at crankshaft at 900 rpm, the generators were replaced with alternators and DC traction motors were replaced with new ones. Class 63 has a max speed of 120 km/h while class 65 is limited to 100 km/h. 63 and 65 are in service for CFR Călători only for passenger coaches' traction. 63 and 65 do not feature Dynamic Braking Systems available in North America.
The following classes are in service:
Diesel multiple units
CFR Călători uses diesel multiple units (DMUs) mainly for passenger services on shorter and little-used lines, even though the Siemens Desiro DMUs have also been used for InterRegio and InterCity services on longer distances.
Electric multiple units
Until June 2006, there were no electric multiple units (EMUs) in service. However, CFR bought some second-hand Z-6100 and Z-6300 EMUs from SNCF, and their CFL version 250 with 2 cars and 260 with 3 cars, which were modernised by Remarul 16 Februarie in Cluj and were used for commuter trains, as class 58, until 2020 when they were withdrawn. The last one to be used was 58-1007-2 (Z-6316).
Romania is linked by rail with all neighboring countries.
- Same gauge:
- Break-of-gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)/1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in):
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