Baccarat

Enlarge Deneuvre Meurthe-et-Moselle
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Baccarat
An aerial view of Baccarat
An aerial view of Baccarat
Coat of arms of Baccarat
Coat of arms
Location of Baccarat
Baccarat is located in France
Baccarat
Baccarat
Baccarat is located in Grand Est
Baccarat
Baccarat
Coordinates: 48°26′57″N 6°44′20″E / 48.4492°N 6.7389°E / 48.4492; 6.7389Coordinates: 48°26′57″N 6°44′20″E / 48.4492°N 6.7389°E / 48.4492; 6.7389
CountryFrance
RegionGrand Est
DepartmentMeurthe-et-Moselle
ArrondissementLunéville
CantonBaccarat
IntercommunalityTerritoire de Lunéville à Baccarat
Government
 • Mayor (2014-2020) Christian Gex
Area
1
13.53 km2 (5.22 sq mi)
Population
 (2017-01-01)[1]
4,330
 • Density320/km2 (830/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
54039 /54120
Elevation257–365 m (843–1,198 ft)
(avg. 275 m or 902 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Baccarat (IPA: [bakaʁa]; German: Burgambach) is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bachâmois or Bachâmoises.[2]

The commune has been awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom.[3]

Geography

Baccarat lies in the district (arrondissement) of Lunéville in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle.[4]

Baccarat is located some 25 km south-east of Lunéville and 30 km north-west of Saint-Dié-des-Vosges in the Meurthe river valley between the Deneuvre plateau and the wooded hills of Grammont. Access to the commune is by the Route nationale N59 from Bertrichamps in the south-east which passes through the heart of the commune east of the town and continues north-west to join the N333 south-east of Lunéville. The D590 also goes from Bertrichamps and passes through the town continuing north-west to Azerailles. The D19 goes north from the village to Gélacourt. The D935 goes north-east from the town to Merviller and also south-west, changing to the D435 at the departmental border, to Ménil-sur-Belvitte.[5] A railway also passes through the commune with a station near the town and the railway line coming from Azerailles in the north-west continuing to Bertrichamps in the south-east. The commune has a large forest in the east with the rest of the commune mixed forest and farmland. The Meurthe river passes through the commune and the town from the south-east flowing north—west to eventually join the Moselle at Custines. The Ruisseau des Bingottes rises east of the commune and joins the Meurthe in the south of the commune.

History

American Hospital No. 2 in Baccarat specialised in the treatment of patients "gassed" by chemical weapons during the First World War, 8 June 1918

Baccarat was originally a suburb of the city of Deneuvre which has Roman origins. The name Baccarat comes perhaps from Bacchi-ara ("Altar of Bacchus") which was the name of a Roman castellum of which there remains a relic called the Tower of Bacha on the heights of Deneuvre.

The Castellany belonged to the Diocese of Metz. In 1305 Henri, first lord of Blâmont from the House of Salm, dedicated Deneuvre for the Bishop of Metz and, to ensure its safety, he built the Tower of Voués at the bottom of the spur. A suburb formed at its foot: this was the origin of Baccarat (which has been spelt Bacquarat, Bakarroit, Beckarrat, and Backarrat). The name Baccarat appeared for the first time in 1291.

In 1459 the city was best known for its drapers as well as wine. Louis XV authorized the creation of a glassworks in 1764 at the instigation of the Bishop of Metz who was anxious to sell the important local production of firewood. A glassworks named Antoine Renaut responded to the authorisation. The works became a crystal glassworks in 1817 and was sold to the Compagnie des Cristalleries in 1881 subsequently achieving worldwide fame under the name of Baccarat. The growing number of workers enabled the development of the commune with the construction of housing, schools, shops, roads, and small industries but the war marked a halt to this development.

On the eve of the First World War the city was home to the 20th Batailion of Foot Chasseurs at the Haxo barracks - some buildings of which remain today. The period between the two world wars was marked by the construction of the church, the bridge, and the town hall (1924). During the Second World War there was much damage to the city including the destruction of the church in October 1944. Liberated by the French 2nd Armoured Division on 31 October 1944, the city resumed its industrial expansion in 1945. The reconstruction of the church was done in 1953.

Heraldry

Arms of Baccarat
These are the Arms of the chapter of the cathedral at Metz who owned the lordship, together with a stemmed glass symbolising the crystal glass industry.

Blazon:
Party per fesse, 1 Gules a dexter arm hand Carnation armed Argent holding a sword the same hilt and pommel Or between two roundels the same; 2 Azure a goblet Argent.



Administration

The Town Hall
The Escadron de Gendarmerie Mobile at Baccarat

The Canton of Baccarat includes 20 communes: Azerailles, Baccarat proper, Bertrichamps, Brouville, Deneuvre, Flin, Fontenoy-la-Joûte, Gélacourt, Glonville, Hablainville, Lachapelle, Merviller, Mignéville, Montigny, Pettonville, Reherrey, Thiaville-sur-Meurthe, Vacqueville, Vaxainville, and Veney.

The Community of communes of Cristal was created on 1 January 2004 to link Baccarat with the neighbouring communes of Lachapelle and Thiaville-sur-Meurthe.

In 2010 Baccarat was awarded the Certification mark of "Ville Internet @@" (Internet Town).[6]

List of Successive Mayors[7]

From To Name Party Position
1857 Jean Joseph Grégoire
1914 1914 Arthur Marie Joseph Tisserand
1965 1971 Jean-Marie Fève Doctor, born in Vicherey
1971 1975 André Violle
1975 1983 Georges Humbert
1983 1989 Michel Bacus
1989 2001 Jean-Marie Fève
2001 2008 Michel le Paige PS
2008 2014 Josette Renaux Retired French Consul
2014 Current Christian Gex PS Engineer

(Not all data is known)

Twinning

Baccarat has twinning associations with:[8]

Population

Population change (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
983 1,096 1,246 1,857 2,304 3,057 3,216 3,260 3,520
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
3,565 4,121 - 5,036 5,764 6,013 5,823 5,723 6,772
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
7,014 6,996 7,277 5,739 5,605 5,598 5,336 5,034 6,024
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2007 2012 2017
6,067 5,856 5,590 5,433 5,022 4,746 4,663 4,512 4,330
Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)

Economy

The town's celebrated glassworks and crystal factory, also known as Baccarat, has operated since 1765.[4] Its technique was established by Aimé Gabriel d'Artigues. Many of its workers under Mr. Roland-Gosselin in the 1950s were awarded the title of Meilleur Ouvrier de France.[citation needed]

Around the time of the Franco-Prussian War, the town was also noted for its large export trade of timber, wheels, planks, and charcoal.[4]

Culture and heritage

The Baccarat Museum
A Crystal object in the Baccarat Museum, Paris

Civil heritage

The commune has many sites that are registered as historical monuments:

An exhibition of Baccarat Glass at Petit Palais à Paris, November 2014
The Tower of Voués
Other sites of interest

Religious heritage

The Church of Saint-Rémy

The commune has several religious buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments:

Other religious sites of interest

Military Life

Baccarat Military Cemetery

The 20th Battalion of Foot Chasseurs were stationed in Baccarat from 1906 to 1918.

Festivals

Notable people linked to the commune

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Populations légales 2017". INSEE. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  2. ^ Inhabitants of Meurthe-et-Moselle (in French)
  3. ^ Baccarat in the Competition for Towns and Villages in Bloom Archived December 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  4. ^ a b c EB (1878).
  5. ^ Google Maps
  6. ^ Baccarat on the Villes Internet official website Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  7. ^ List of Mayors of France (in French)
  8. ^ National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (in French)
  9. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000952 Berthelon Gasworks (in French)
  10. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM54004518 Gas meter (in French)
  11. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000960 Metalwork Factory (in French)
  12. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001021 Hydro-electric Power Plant (in French)
  13. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001014 Gasworks (in French)
  14. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001019 Chateau (in French)
  15. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001025 Glassworks Complex IA54001015 Saint Anne Glassworks (in French)
  16. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM54004536 Stained glass panel depicting Glass workers (in French)
  17. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000959 Sawmill (in French)
  18. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000966 Drouard et Berthault Lock and Metalwork Factory (in French)
  19. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000953 Dairy Factory (in French)
  20. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000954 Deneuvre Mill (in French)
  21. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001024 Workers' City (in French)
  22. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy, Drawings: PM54001379 The Church after its destruction in 1944 PM54001378 The Church after its destruction in 1944 (in French)
  23. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy, Paintings: PM54001377 Waterfall PM54001376 The Church in ruins PM54001375 Champigneulles, a Lorrain village PM54001374 A Lane overlooking a Valley PM54001373 Lake and Village (River) PM54001372 Lake and small boat (Bathing spot) PM54001371 3 Birches in the Marsh PM54001370 La Pexure: Stream in a village under a large tree PM54001369 Mountain Landscape PM54001368 Marine (or foam) PM54001369 Birches in autumn with Mountain background (in French)
  24. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM54001366 4 Chandeliers and 6 Sconces (in French)
  25. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM54001380 Painting: Forest Landscape (in French)
  26. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM54001365 2 Chandeliers and 2 Sconces (in French)
  27. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM54001364 2 Paintings: A Boar taken by a team of Mastiffs and The double blow (in French)
  28. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001020 Chapel of Saint Anne (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  29. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA54000078 Church of Saint-Rémy (in French)
  30. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM54009564 Ciborium No. 3 (in French)
  31. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM54002454 48 Stained glass windows: The Apostles and Calvary (in French)