Argentina–Canada relations

Canada Argentina Justin Trudeau
Argentina–Canada relations
Map indicating locations of Argentina and Canada

Argentina

Canada

Argentina–Canada relations refers to the current and historical relations between the Argentine Republic and Canada. Both nations are members of the Cairns Group, G20, Lima Group, Organization of American States and the United Nations.

History

Relations between Argentina and Canada date back to 1867, when the Canadian government carried out its first commercial mission to Argentina and other countries in the region.[1] In 1911, Canada opened its first South American trade office in Buenos Aires.[2] In 1940 both nations formally established diplomatic relations. In 1945, Canada opened its first resident embassy in Buenos Aires.[2]

In November 1961, President Arturo Frondizi became the first Argentine head-of-state to visit Canada.[1] During his visit, President Frondizi met with Prime Minister John Diefenbaker. In 1968, Canadian Foreign Minister Mitchell Sharp paid a visit to Argentina and met with President Juan Carlos Onganía.[1] In 1976, Argentina entered into a Military dictatorship. In 1978, the first Aerolíneas Argentinas flight was made between Buenos Aires and Montreal.[1]

In April 1982, the Falklands War began between Argentina and the United Kingdom. During the war, Canada remained neutral, however, Canada withdrew its Ambassador from Buenos Aires.[3] The decision to remain neutral by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau was to distance Canadian foreign policy, economics, and military commitments from those of both the United States and the United Kingdom.[4]

In 1994, Argentine President Carlos Menem paid a visit to Canada. In 1995, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien became the first Canadian head-of-government to visit Argentina.[1] In recent years, both nations have jointly engaged in reconstruction and peacekeeping operations in Haiti and have collaborated as part of the Group of Friends of Haiti, as well as through the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH).

In 2013, Canada sent election observers during the Falkland Islands sovereignty referendum. Canada's official position is that the Falkland Islanders should decide their own destiny.[5]

In November 2016, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau paid an official visit to Argentina and met with President Mauricio Macri. During his visit, both nations marked the 75th anniversary of bilateral relations.[6] Both leaders also discussed the re-establishment of the annual Argentina-Canada bilateral human rights consultations; maintaining an ongoing dialogue on deepening the Canada-Mercosur trade and investment relationship; enhancing efforts to address climate change through the full and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement, and strengthen bilateral and multilateral cooperation on disarmament, non-proliferation, and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Both countries committed to resuming their nuclear regulatory cooperation and re-establishing bilateral nuclear consultations pursuant to the Canada-Argentina Nuclear Cooperation Agreement.[6]

In November 2018, Prime Minister Trudeau visited a second visit to Argentina to attend the G20 Buenos Aires summit.

High-level visits

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Argentine President Mauricio Macri in the Casa Rosada, Buenos Aires; 2016.

High-level visits from Argentina to Canada

High-level visits from Canada to Argentina

Indigenous relations

Totem pole in Plaza Canadá, Buenos Aires

Over the past decade, relations between the indigenous communities and associations in Canada and Argentina have grown remarkably. Initiatives spanning the political, commercial, international cooperation, academic, cultural and Information Technology (IT) areas have occurred with increasing frequency. Indigenous leaders of Argentina have received many official delegations from Canada to exchange views and experiences. In October/November 2005, the II Indigenous Summit of the Americas was held in Buenos Aires and in Mendoza, with the assistance of the government of Canada and organizational support from the Assembly of First Nations in Canada.

The arts have also strengthened the relationship between Argentine and Canadian indigenous peoples, mainly since the Masters of the Arctic exhibit came to Argentina. In Buenos Aires, there is a totem pole on display in Plaza Canadá, which was built and donated by the Kwakiutl nation.[2] At the National University of Rosario there is an Inuksuk built in their Canada Square by artist David Piktoukoun. The Canadian Studies Association of Argentina sustains an Indigenous Chair run by indigenous members and has supported projects in a wide variety of fields (indigenous health, education, arts, social policies and organization, new technologies) and supports congresses and seminars where issues of cultural diversity, human rights and environmental awareness take center stage.

Bilateral agreements

Both nations have signed several agreements such as an Agreement for the construction of the nuclear power plant in the Río Tercero Reservoir (1976); Air Transport Agreement (1979); Agreement for the Promotion and Protection of Investments (1993); Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital (1994); Treaty on Mutual Criminal Assistance (2000); Memorandum of Understanding in energy efficiency (2018); Memorandum of Understanding in policies in the mining sector (2018); and a Memorandum of Understanding in cooperation in nuclear energy (2018).[7]

Trade

In 2018, two-way trade between Argentina and Canada totaled US$2 billion.[2] Argentina's main exports to Canada include: gold and other minerals; wine; fruit (apples and citrus); mineral ores and prepared vegetable foodstuffs. Canada's main exports to Argentina include: machinery and parts; aerospace products; pharmaceutical products; and electrical and electronic machinery and equipment.[2] Argentina is Canada's 53rd-largest export destination globally. In March 2018, Mercosur trade bloc ministers (which includes Argentina) agreed to launch formal negotiations toward a comprehensive Canada-Mercosur free trade agreement (FTA).[8] Canadian multinational gold mining company, Barrick Gold, operates in Argentina.

Embassy of Canada in Buenos Aires

Resident diplomatic missions

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Relaciones Bilaterales Argentina-Canadá (in Spanish)
  2. ^ a b c d e Canada - Argentina Relations
  3. ^ Martin, Lisa L. (Spring 1992). "Institutions and Cooperation: Sanctions during the Falkland Islands Conflict" (PDF). International Security. p9. 16 (4): 143–178. doi:10.2307/2539190. JSTOR 2539190. Retrieved 11 December 2018.CS1 maint: location (link)
  4. ^ Canadian Diplomacy and the 1982 Falklands War
  5. ^ Justin Trudeau in Argentina, hoping to deepen ties with ally nation
  6. ^ a b Fact Sheet - Strengthening ties between Canada and Argentina
  7. ^ Acuerdos bilaterales con Canadá (in Spanish)
  8. ^ Canada-Mercosur Free Trade Agreement
  9. ^ Embassy of Argentina in Ottawa
  10. ^ Embassy of Canada in Buenos Aires