Arad, Romania

Hungary Romania Neoclassical architecture
Arad Rathaus 3940-43.jpg
Arad - Palatul Cenad.jpgArad - biserica luterana (2).jpgArad - catedrala catolica (3).jpg
Fatada Colegiul National Moise Nicoara.jpgArad - Teatrul Ioan Slavici.jpg
St. Nepomuk's Statue.jpgRectoratul Universitatii "Aurel Vlaicu" -Arad.JPG
From top, left to right: Arad City Hall, Cenad Palace, The Red Church, St. Anthony of Padua Church, Moise Nicoara National College, Ioan Slavici National Theatre, Statue of St. Nepomuk's, Aurel Vlaicu University
Location in Arad County
Location in Arad County
Arad is located in Romania
Location in Romania
Coordinates: 46°10′N 21°19′E / 46.167°N 21.317°E / 46.167; 21.317Coordinates: 46°10′N 21°19′E / 46.167°N 21.317°E / 46.167; 21.317
Country Romania
 • MayorCălin Bibarț (acting) (PNL)
46.18 km2 (17.83 sq mi)
117 m (384 ft)
 • Density3,400/km2 (8,900/sq mi)
Time zoneEET/EEST (UTC+2/+3)
Postal code
Area code(+40) 02 57
Vehicle reg.AR
Arad on an 18th-century map

Arad (Romanian pronunciation: [aˈrad] (About this soundlisten); Hungarian: Arad; Serbian: Арад/Arad) is the capital city of Arad County, historically situated in the region of Crișana, and having extended into the neighboring Banat region in the 20th century.[2] Arad is the third largest city in Western Romania, behind Timișoara and Oradea, and the 12th largest in Romania, with a population of 159,704.

A busy transportation hub on the Mureș River and an important cultural and industrial center, Arad has hosted one of the first music conservatories in Europe,[3][4] one of the earliest normal schools in Europe[5], and the first car factory in Hungary and present-day Romania.[6] Today, it is the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary and two universities.

The city's multicultural heritage is owed to the fact that it has been part of the Kingdom of Hungary, the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom, the Ottoman Temeşvar Eyalet, Principality of Transylvania, Austro-Hungarian Empire, and since 1920 Romania, having had significant populations of Hungarians, Germans, Jews, Serbs, Bulgarians[7] and Roma[8] at various points in its history. During the second half of the 19th century and the beginning on the 20th century, the city has experienced rapid development. The most impressive displays of architecture that are still the popular sights of Arad today, such as the neoclassical Ioan Slavici Theater, the eclectic Administrative Palace and the neogothic Red Church, have been built in this period.


The evidence of Pre-Indo-European civilisation occurs with the establishment of the first settlement on the northern bank of the Mureş River in the 5th millennium BC, and the extension of the human settlements on the left bank of the Mureş River occurs in the 4th millennium BC. In the 3rd millennium BC prosperous settlements appear on both banks and on the islands of the Mureş River belonging to an Indo-European civilisation, which peaked around 1000 BC. Excavations made for the foundations of the Astoria Hotel found a human skeleton from the Bronze Age.[9]

The first Dacian settlements appear in the 1st millennium BC. In the 5th century a group of Scythians settled in the region but were assimilated by the Dacians. And between the 4th and 3rd centuries, the Celts settled on both banks of the Mureş River, in the vicinity of the existing settlements. The coexistence of the Celts lasted about two centuries and ended with their assimilation by the numerous Dacians.

The Dacian settlement in the south of the Micălaca district was conquered by the Roman troops between 101 and 102. During the Second Dacian War (105-106), the Emperor Trajan conquered territories north of Mureş River, making them part of the Roman Dacia. In the Aradul Nou area, the Roman army built the fort Castra of Aradul Nou that housed the legion Legio IV Flavia Felix. During the period between the 2nd and 4th centuries Dacian and Sarmatian settlements were present in the area of today's city, with intense commercial relations with the Roman Empire.

The first evidence of Slavic assimilation by Proto-Romanians appeared with the 4th century. The settlements dated to the second half of the 1st millennium were concentrated in the northern part of Mures River, among them the one from Vladimirescu-Schanzen, dated in the 8th and 9th centuries, according to the examinations from archaeological discoveries.

In the 10th century the Hungarians began their expansion in Transylvania, one of the main access routes being the valley of Mureş. Ruler Glad, under the threat of the Hungarian land-taking, built a fortress at Vladimirescu-Schanzen which was conquered and destroyed by the Hungarians in the middle of the tenth century. Another ruler, Achtum, rebuilt it but the fortress was once again destroyed in 1028 by another Hungarian attack.

Arad was first mentioned in documents in the 11th century. The Mongol invasion of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1241 showed the importance of the fortifications on this place, to which were added in the second half of the 13th century more stone fortresses at Șoimoș, Șiria, and Dezna. The Ottoman Empire conquered the region from Hungary in 1551 and kept it until the Peace of Karlowitz of 1699. Arad became an eyalet center, which comprised the sanjaks of Arad, Lugoj, Kacaș, Beşlek and Yanova from 1660 till 1697, when it was captured by Austrians (Serbian Militia under command of Subota Jović) during Ottoman-Habsburg wars (1683–1699). After 1699, the city was ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy. At the beginning of the 18th century, Arad became the center of the Eastern Orthodox Eparchy of Arad. According to 1720 data, the population of the city was composed of 177 Romanian families, 162 Serbian, and 35 Hungarian.[10]

The first Jew allowed to settle inside the city was Isac Elias in 1717.[11] Eventually the Jewish population of Arad numbered over 10,000 people, more than 10% of the population, before the Second World War.[12]

The new fortress was built between 1763 and 1783. Although it was small, it proved formidable having played a great role in the Hungarian struggle for independence in 1849. The city possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.[13]

Courageously defended by the Austrian general Berger until the end of July 1849, it was captured by the Hungarian rebels, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. It was from Arad that Lajos Kossuth issued his famous proclamation (11 August 1849), and where he handed over the supreme military and civil power to Artúr Görgey.[13]

The fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender at Világos (now Șiria, Romania), with the surrender of general Artúr Görgey to the Russians. It became an ammunition depot. Thirteen rebel generals were executed there on 6 October 1849, by order of the Austrian general Julius Jacob von Haynau. These men are known collectively as the 13 Martyrs of Arad, and since then Arad is considered the "Hungarian Golgotha". One of the public squares contains a martyrs' monument, erected in their memory. It consists of a colossal figure of Hungary, with four allegorical groups, and medallions of the executed generals.[13]

Arad enjoyed great economic development in the 19th century. In 1834 it was declared a "free royal town" by Emperor Francis I of Austria.

Aradu Nou / Neu Arad / Újarad ("New Arad"), situated on the opposite bank of the Mureș river, is a neighborhood of Arad, to which it is connected by the Trajan bridge. It was founded during the Turkish wars of the 17th century. The works erected by the Turks for the capture of the fortress of Arad formed the nucleus of the new settlement.[13]

In 1910, the town had 63,166 inhabitants: 46,085 (73%) Hungarians, 10,279 (16.2%) Romanians, 4,365 (7%) Germans.[14]


 → 1868 – Romanian poet Mihai Eminescu came to Arad as a prompter for Matei Millo's theatre company.

 → 1846 – Hungarian composer and piano virtuoso Franz Liszt performed.

 → 1847 – Johann Strauss the Son performed.

 → 1877 – Pablo Sarasate and Henryk Wieniawski performed.

 → 1922 – Romanian composer and violin virtuoso George Enescu performed.

 → 1924 – Hungarian composer Béla Bartók performed.


According to the 2011 census, the municipality of Arad was home to 159,704 inhabitants. The ethnic split of the city was as follows: 126,075 Romanians (85.19%); 15,695 Hungarians (10.06%); 2,535 Romani (1.71%); 1,256 Germans (0.84%); and 2,116 of other nationalities (1.22%).[17]

The principal religious groups were the Romanian Orthodox (72.7%), Roman Catholic (12.1%), Baptist (4.5%), Pentecostal (4.4%), Reformed (3.1%), and Greek-Catholic (1.1%) churches.


Arad has a continental climate with cool and damp winters. The summers are warm to hot. In the summer months of June, July and August there are 60 days above 32 °C (90 °F). The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[18]

Climate data for Arad, Romania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18
Average high °C (°F) 1
Daily mean °C (°F) −1
Average low °C (°F) −3
Record low °C (°F) −25
Average precipitation mm (inches) 22.8
Average rainy days 11 11 11 10 12 11 9 8 7 9 12 12 123
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62 84 124 150 248 270 279 279 210 155 60 62 1,983
Source: Weatherbase[19] MSN Weather[20] BBC Weather [21]


With a rich industrial and commercial tradition, Arad is one of the most prosperous cities in Romania. Thanks to numerous investments in industry and commerce, Arad has a booming economy.[citation needed]

The main industries are: railroad cars, food processing, furniture and household accessories, equipment for the car industry, electric components, instrumentation, clothing and textiles, and footwear.


Arad is the most important trans-European road and rail transportation junction point in western Romania, included in the 4th Pan-European Corridor linking Western Europe to South-Eastern European and Middle Eastern countries. The city has an extensive tram network and several bus lines covering most of the city's neighbourhoods and suburbs. Arad International Airport (IATA: ARW, ICAO: LRAR), with the largest and most modern cargo terminal in western Romania, is situated only 4 km west from central Arad and is directly connected to the Arad west bypass road, part of the A1 Motorway.

Employees by occupation


  1. Centru
  2. Aradul Nou
  3. Gai
  4. Aurel Vlaicu
  5. Micălaca
  6. Grădiște
  7. Alfa
  8. Bujac
  9. Confectii
  10. Functionarilor
  11. Parneava
  12. Sânnicolaul Mic
  13. Colonia
  14. Subcetate

Tourist attractions

Architectural monuments

Ioan Slavici Classic Theatre
Neumann Palace

Historic buildings


The Lutheran Red Church in Arad
This is a picture of a park in Podgoria, Arad. In the background you can see the Holy Trinity Cathedral and some ten story buildings.
The Statue of Liberty

Religious tourism

Roman Catholic Cathedral St. Anthony of Padua

Recreational tourism

Culture and education


Arad has two universities, the private "Vasile Goldiș" Western University, founded in 1990, and the public Aurel Vlaicu University founded in 1991. Also the "Spiru Haret" long-distance studies University has a branch in Arad.

There are about two dozen high schools, some of the more famous being the Moise Nicoară National College, the Pedagogical High School "Dimitrie Țichindeal", "Elena Ghiba-Birta" National College, the Economics College, the Technical College for Constructions and Environmental Protection Arad, and the Vasile Goldiș theoretical lyceum. High schools in minority languages include the Hungarian Csiky Gergely College and the German Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn theoretical lyceum.

Cultural life

Museums and exhibitions

Arad town hall square


The most important hospitals in Arad are Arad County Clinical Hospital and Arad Municipal Hospital (in the late 2000s it merged with Arad County Clinical Hospital). The city also has a number of public hospitals (Arad Maternal Hospital, The Polyclinic, The Dental Clinic, etc.) and private hospitals (MedLife Genesis, Laser System, Mediqua, etc.)

International relations

Twin towns—Sister cities

Arad is twinned with:[22]

Partner cities


The UTA Arad (formerly ITA) football team was founded in 1945 and has won six Romanian championships and two Romanian Cups. As of the 2019–20 season, it plays in the second national league, Liga II. The team has won more league titles than any other team that is not based in Bucharest, and the third most after Steaua and Dinamo[citation needed]; it is the 3rd more successful modern team in the country and 4th counting Venus Bucharest, a team from the Inter-War period. The team's most notable performance on the international stage is the elimination from the European Champions Cup of Ernst Happel's Feyenoord in the 1970–71 season, when the Dutch team were defending European champions and later won the Intercontinental Cup.

In basketball, the women's ICIM and the men's West Petrom teams have national prominence, their record including some recent national championship wins (ICIM in 1998 through 2001, West Petrom in 2001 and 2002). In men's water polo, Astra Arad also plays in the first division. The men's rugby team Contor Group Arad plays in the National Rugby League, reaching the playoff final in 2006.

World Champion and Olympic medalist in gymnastics Emilia Eberle was born in Arad.


  1. ^ "Populaţia stabilă pe judeţe, municipii, oraşe şi localităti componenete la RPL_2011" (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  2. ^ "Aradul între 1945 și 1990". ARAD - Arad (in Romanian). Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  3. ^ Dorin Frandeș, Spații arădene care au găzduit muzică – Pitești : Nomina 2011 ISBN 978-606-535-327-5;
  4. ^, SysAdmins :: 2015. "Consiliul Judetean Arad". Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  5. ^ "Preparandia Română". AradCityGuide (in Romanian). Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  6. ^ "Prima fabrică de automobile din ţară a fost construită la Arad". 31 March 2011. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  7. ^ Marco, Gabriela Adina. "Realități demografice de pe Valea Mureșului Inferior în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea și la începutul secolului al XX-lea" (PDF). Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  8. ^ "Volumul II: Populația stabilă (rezidentă) – structura etnică și confesională". Recensământul populației și al locuințelor 2011. INSSE. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  9. ^ La Arad a fost descoperit un schelet uman din epoca fierului
  10. ^ Dr Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 2, Novi Sad, 1990, page 326.
  11. ^ Lakatos Otto - Aradi története
  12. ^ (in Romanian) "Sinagoga din Arad - Misterul din spatele usilor : Stiri Arad," Archived 2011-04-30 at the Wayback Machine (13 mar 2008). Retrieved 11-08-2013.
  13. ^ a b c d  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Arad". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 311–312.
  14. ^ Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914, Talma Kiadó Archived 2017-01-14 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  16. ^ Populatia RPR la 25 ianuarie 1948, p. 14
  17. ^ "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.[permanent dead link]
  18. ^ "Arad, Romania Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  19. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Arad, Romania".
  20. ^ "MSN Weather Averages for Arad". Archived from the original on 2013-01-04.
  21. ^ "BBC Weather Averages for Arad". BBC News.
  22. ^ Romania, Arad. "Arad Romania :: Primaria Municipiului Arad (InfoHtml)". Retrieved 11 June 2017.