Amanullah loyalism

Kingdom of Afghanistan Mohammed Nadir Shah Amanullah Khan
Afghanistan's flag c. 1928 (one of several variants) under King Amanullah

Amanullah loyalism refers to several historical movements in the Kingdom of Afghanistan to restore Amanullah Khan as king of Afghanistan after he was deposed in January 1929 during the Afghan Civil War. Loyalists were sometimes referred to as Amanite.[1] Loyalists tried to achieve this in various ways, including armed rebellions, political parties, colluding with foreign powers and assassinations. These movements were unsuccessful, and Amanullah died in exile in 1960 in Zürich, Switzerland without ever regaining control, other than a brief period of control in southern Afghanistan in the 1929 Afghan Civil War.

Rebellions

1929 Afghan Civil War

In March 1929, during the 1929 Afghan Civil War, Amanullah assembled an army in Kandahar made up of Durrani, Khattak, Ghilzai and Hazarah fighters.[2] However, his attempt to march on Kabul was unsuccessful, and he retreated to Qalat, where he fell under a Saqqawist siege on 19 May.[3] On 23 May, Qalat fell to the Saqqawists and Amanullah fled to the British Raj.[3]

Shinwari rebellion

The Shinwari rebellion[4] was a rebellion by the Shinwari that took place in February[4][5] or May[6][7] 1930 in the Kingdom of Afghanistan. The Shinwari sought to depose Mohammed Nadir Shah and restore Amanullah Khan as king of Afghanistan.[6][5] Due to lack of support by Shinwari elders (who had been bribed by Nadir[6]), the rebellion was promptly suppressed.[5]

The Shinwari's support for Amanullah in 1930 apparently contradicted their earlier revolt against Amanullah in 1928. During this rebellion, the Shinwari claimed that the earlier revolt was "not so much anti-Amanullah as against the local tax-collectors at Jelalabad"[7].

Kuhistan rebellion

The Kuhistan rebellion was a rebellion in modern-day Kohistan District, Kapisa which took place in 1930 in the Kingdom of Afghanistan. It began in February 1930, when rebels seeking to restore Amanullah Khan as King of Afghanistan broke out in open rebellion against Mohammed Nadir Shah. After killing many, the rebellion was crushed in mid-April 1930.[8]

Crazy Fakir's rebellion

Towards the end of February 1933, a "Crazy Fakir" appeared in the Khost district in the south of Afghanistan, proclaiming that the ex-king Amanullah will soon arrive. At his instigation a number of tribesmen took arms with the intention of marching on Kabul, and they received considerable reinforcements from the Wazir and Mahsud tribes across the Indian border. They met the government troops which were sent south to oppose them in the neighbourhood of Matun, and some sharp fighting takes place at the end of February and beginning of March. The tribesmen from across the border then began to withdraw at the bidding of some of their elders who were sent by the British authorities to recall them, and the uprising soon came to an end. Later in the year one of the ringleaders, Tor Malang, was executed with some of his associates, but the "Crazy Fakir", who fled abroad, is allowed to return with the assurance of a free pardon, on account of his advanced age.[9]

Ghilzai rebellion

The Ghilzai rebellion was an uprising in the Kingdom of Afghanistan by the Ghilzai tribe in 1938. Its causes laid in a desire to reinstate Amanullah Khan as king of Afghanistan.[10] A relative of Amanullah, Said al-Kailani, also known as the Shami Pir marched on Kabul with an unknown amount of Ghilzai warriors.[10] There are 2 accounts as to how the rebellion ended - according to British records, the rebellion was defeated in the summer of 1938 by the Afghan army using British-supplied rifles.[11] According to Harvey Smith, the rebellion ended after the British bought off Shami Pir following frantic appeals by the Afghan government.[10] In either case, this rebellion prompted the Prime Minister, Mohammad Hashim Khan, to increase subsidies for Pashtun tribes near the Durand line.[10]

Mazrak's revolt

In February 1944, Mazrak Zadran, an Amanullah loyalist,[12] led an ambush against government troops in the Southern province,[13] after which he was beaten back and forced to retreat into the hills.[14] He continued to fight the Afghan government for the following years. In late 1944, he invaded the British Raj, where he was joined by a Sultan Ahmed, a rebel chieftain from Balochistan.[15] They were later joined by another rebel leader nicknamed Pak.[16]

However, Mazrak's fortunes were not to last. He was evicted from British territory due to British bombardment.[17] In October 1945, most Safi surrendered,[18] followed by the surrender of Sultan Ahmad in November.[19] Nonetheless, Mazrak and his brother Sher Muhd Khan continued to fight,[20] refusing to surrender until 11 January 1947.[21]

Political parties

Anti-Yahya Khel Party

The Anti-Yahya Khel Party (Hizb-i-Zid-Yahya Khel) was a small loyalist political party which was briefly active in 1933.[22] Members of the movement opposed the Musahiban dynasty for political reasons or out of personal spite.[22] In this case, Yahya Khel refers to an alternative name for the Musahiban.

Collusion with foreign powers

World War II

During World War II, some press in the west reported that Amanullah was working as an agent for Nazi Germany in Berlin.[23] It is believed he was involved in plans to regain his throne with Axis help,[24] despite Afghanistan's neutrality. However following the Axis loss in Stalingrad in 1943, the plans cooled off and were never executed.[25]

Assassinations

Assassination of Mohammed Nadir Shah

In November 1933, Mohammed Nadir Shah was assassinated by Abdul Khaliq Hazara, a supporter of Amanullah.[26]

References

  1. ^ The Assassination of Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan: Report of the Commission of Enquiry. Manager of Publications. 1952. p. 11.
  2. ^ Muḥammad, Fayz̤; McChesney, R. D. (1999). Kabul under siege: Fayz Muhammad's account of the 1929 Uprising. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-55876-154-4.
  3. ^ a b Muḥammad, Fayz̤; McChesney, R. D. (1999). Kabul under siege: Fayz Muhammad's account of the 1929 Uprising. Markus Wiener Publishers. pp. 79, 80. ISBN 978-1-55876-154-4.
  4. ^ a b Adamec, Ludwig W. (2012). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780810878150.
  5. ^ a b c Gladstone, Soloman W. E. (2018-03-02). A History of Afghanistan Vol II. Creative Media Partners, LLC. p. 322. ISBN 9781378970881.
  6. ^ a b c Emadi, Hafizullah (2005). Culture and Customs of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 35. ISBN 9780313330896.
  7. ^ a b Misdaq, Nabi (2006-04-18). Afghanistan: Political Frailty and External Interference. Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 9781135990176.
  8. ^ Dixon, Jeffrey; Dixon, Jeffrey S.; Sarkees, Meredith Reid (2015-10-22). A Guide to Intra-state Wars. SAGE. p. 488. ISBN 9780872897755.
  9. ^ M, Epstein (1934). The Annual Register 1933 Vol 175. p. 258.
  10. ^ a b c d Smith, Harvey Henry (1969). Area Handbook for Afghanistan. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 55, 56.
  11. ^ "Coll 7/37 'Afghanistan: sale of 25,000 1914 pattern rifles from War Office stocks and 7 million rounds of ammunition from Government of India stocks; negotiations with Afghan Government' [206v] (412/1201)". Qatar Digital Library. 2016-09-28. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
  12. ^ Khan, Sarfraz; Ul Amin, Noor (Winter 2014). "THE CONTRIBUTION OF INDIAN MUSLIMS IN DEVELOPING PRINT MEDIA AND SPREADING ENLIGHTENMENT IN AFGHANISTAN(1870-1930)" (PDF). Central Asia Journal. p. 130.
  13. ^ "REPORT FOR THE MONTH OF APRIL 1944 FOR THE DOMINIONS, INDIA, BURMA, AND THE COLONIES AND MANDATED TERRITORIES". Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs. 25 May 1944. p. 6. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019.
  14. ^ "REPORT FOR THE MONTH OF APRIL 1944 FOR THE DOMINIONS, INDIA, BURMA, AND THE COLONIES AND MANDATED TERRITORIES". Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs. 25 May 1944. p. 6. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019.
  15. ^ Yapp, Malcolm (2001). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the foreign office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Near and Middle-East 1947. Afghanistan, Persia and Turkey, january 1947-december 1947. University Publications of America. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-55655-765-1.
  16. ^ Yapp, Malcolm; Preston, Paul; Patridge, Michael; Office, Great Britain Foreign (1999). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Near and Middle-East. University Publications of America. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-55655-765-1.
  17. ^ Preston, Paul; Partridge, Michael; Yapp, Malcolm (1997). British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print: Eastern affairs, July 1944-March 1945. University Publications of America. p. 348. ISBN 9781556556715.
  18. ^ Yapp, Malcolm; Preston, Paul; Patridge, Michael; Office, Great Britain Foreign (1999). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Near and Middle-East. University Publications of America. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-55655-765-1.
  19. ^ Yapp, Malcolm (2001). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the foreign office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Near and Middle-East 1947. Afghanistan, Persia and Turkey, january 1947-december 1947. University Publications of America. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-55655-765-1.
  20. ^ Yapp, Malcolm (2001). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the foreign office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Near and Middle-East 1947. Afghanistan, Persia and Turkey, january 1947-december 1947. University Publications of America. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-55655-765-1.
  21. ^ Malik, Murtaza (2002-01-01). The Curtain Rises: Uncovered Conspiracies in Pakistan, Afghanistan. Royal Book Company. p. 38. ISBN 978-969-407-271-5. Eventually, he and his family surrendered to the Political Agent North Waziristan on January 11, 1947.
  22. ^ a b Yunas, S. Fida (1997). Political parties, groups, associations and movements, the pre 1964 period. p. 24.
  23. ^ https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/8180382
  24. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1979/04/29/archives/afghan-king-in-rome-exile-tightens-belt-daud-sent-money-to-family.html
  25. ^ Crews, Robert D. (14 September 2015). Afghan Modern: The History of a Global Nation. ISBN 9780674286092.
  26. ^ Gritzner, Jeffrey A.; Shroder, John F. (2009). Afghanistan, Second Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-4381-0480-5.