Ahmed Abdallah

Said Mohamed Djohar Said Mohamed Jaffar Azali Assoumani
Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane
Ahmed A..png
1st President of Comoros
In office
July 6, 1975 – August 3, 1975
Preceded byCountry gains independence, Position created
Succeeded bySaid Mohamed Jaffar
In office
October 25, 1978 – November 26, 1989
Preceded byHimself as Co-Chairman of the Politico-Military Directorate
Succeeded bySaid Mohamed Djohar
Co-Chairman of the Politico-Military Directorate of the Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros
In office
May 23, 1978 – October 25, 1978
Preceded byPosition created
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Personal details
Born(1919-06-12)June 12, 1919
Domoni, Anjouan
DiedNovember 26, 1989(1989-11-26) (aged 70)
Moroni, Comoros
Cause of deathAssassination (machine-gun wound)
NationalityComoros
Political partyComorian Democratic Union, then Comorian Union for Progress

Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane (Arabic: أحمد عبد الله عبد الرحمن‎, Ahmad Abd Allah Abd ar-Rahman, 12 June 1919 – 26 November 1989)[1] was a Comorian politician. He was a member of the French Senate from 1959 to 1973,[2] and President of the Comoros from 25 October 1978 until his death.[3]

Life prior to the presidency

Abdallah was born in Domoni, on the island of Anjouan. He began participating in the government in the 1940s, while the Comoros were still part of France. He was the President of the general council from 1949 until 1953, and was the chairman of the chamber of deputies during the 1970s.[4]

First presidency

In 1972, Abdallah, now leader of his political party, the Comoros Democratic Union (UDC), became president of the government council and Chief Minister of the Comoros;[5] he served in that position until 6 July 1975, when the islands became independent from France, (with the exception of Mayotte, which voted to remain part of France.)[6] Abdallah became the first president of the independent islands, but was overthrown by Said Mohamed Jaffar in a coup d'état on August 3, 1975.[7] Jaffar, in turn, would be overthrown by Ali Soilih in 1976.[8]

Second presidency

Abdallah (who had been living in exile Paris, France) was the nominal leader of the coup staged by mercenary Bob Denard on 13 May 1978.[7] After Said Atthoumani had served as "Chairman of the Politico-Military Directorate" for ten days, Abdallah and Mohamed Ahmed assumed the titles of "Co-Chairmen of the Politico-Military Directorate."[9] On 22 July, their titles were changed to "Co-Chairmen of the Directorate," and on 3 October, Abdallah became the lone chair.[9] Abdallah was in fact a puppet leader with no power to make decisions of his own, and the real ruler of the Comoros was Denard, who served as the commander of the Presidential Guard.[10]

On 25 October, Abdallah assumed the title of president and remained in office until his death, despite three separate coup attempts against him.[11] In 1982, Abdallah had the UDC and all other parties abolished, and a new party, the Comorian Union for Progress (UCP), was set up.[12] The Comoros became a one-party state, with the UCP being the only legal party, the regime became dictatorial, supervised by mercenaries who controlled the country and avoided various coup attempts. Some opponents of the regime are executed or disappear during this period. The only candidate to be allowed to stand for election, Ahmed Abdallah was re-elected on September 30, 1984, and his party won all seats in the Federal Assembly on May 22, 1987.[8][12] During this time, Denard proceeded to plunder the Comorian economy as he became the largest single landowner in the Comoros, taking over all the best land, which he then developed into luxury hotel resorts for wealthy Western tourists who wished to enjoy the tropics.[13] 

On 26 November 1989, he was shot dead in his Moroni office on a highly disputed circumstances. It is generally believed that Denard had Abdallah assassinated for tying to dismiss him as commander of the Presidential Guard.[14]  At his trial in 1999 for Abdallah's murder in Paris, Denard claimed that Abdallah was assassinated by Abdallah Jaffar during a coup led by Ali Soilih's half-brother, Said Mohamed Djohar.[15] Denard was acquitted for a lack of evidence as the judge ruled that the prosecution made only a circumstantial case that Denard was behind Abdallah's murder.[16][17] Djohar took control of the country the next day.[4] Denard tried to prevent Djohar from assuming the presidency, but this time, France, which found Denard an embarrassment, sent in military forces to gently usher Denard and his mercenaries out of the Comoros.  

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ahmed Abdallah". Kentix Computing. Archived from the original on 8 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  2. ^ Page on the French Senate website
  3. ^ "Histoire des Comores". MweziNet. 2006-11-16. Retrieved 2006-12-26.
  4. ^ a b Security concerns - Comoros
  5. ^ A Political Chronology of Africa. Taylor & Francis, 2001, ISBN 1857431162, p. 92.
  6. ^ Mayotte. Central Intelligence Agency. 2006-12-29. Archived from the original on 2012-09-21. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  7. ^ a b Thomson Gale authors. Comoros History. Encyclopedia of the Nations. Archived from the original on 24 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  8. ^ a b Ottenheimer, Martin; Harriet Joseph Ottenheimer. "History (from Comoros)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 16 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  9. ^ a b Cahoon, Benjamin M. "Comoros". Worldstatesmen.org. Archived from the original on 5 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  10. ^ Hebditch, David & Connor, Ken How to Stage a Military Coup: From Planning to Execution, New York: Skyhorse, 2005 p.136
  11. ^ Chernow, Barbara A.; George A. Vallasi, eds. (1993). "Comoros". The Columbia Encyclopedia (Fifth ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 615. ISBN 0-395-62438-X.
  12. ^ a b Thomson Gale authors. Comoros Political Parties. Encyclopedia of the Nations. Archived from the original on 24 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  13. ^ Axelrod, Alan Mercenaries: A Guide to Private Armies and Private Military Companies, Washington: CQ Press, 2013 p.78
  14. ^ Axelrod, Alan Mercenaries: A Guide to Private Armies and Private Military Companies, Washington: CQ Press, 2013 p.78
  15. ^ World: Africa Comoros mercenary cleared of assassination BBC, 19 May 1999.
  16. ^ https://www.liberation.fr/societe/1999/05/20/bob-denard-acquitte-les-comoriens-presents-au-proces-ont-hue-le-verdict-des-jures-de-la-cour-d-assis_273476
  17. ^ Axelrod, Alan Mercenaries: A Guide to Private Armies and Private Military Companies, Washington: CQ Press, 2013 p.78