41st Parliament of British Columbia

British Columbia Liberal Party New Democratic Party of British Columbia British Columbia New Democratic Party

41st Parliament of British Columbia
Minority parliament
June 22, 2017 – present
Coat of Arms of British Columbia.png
Parliament leaders
PremierHon. Christy Clark
March 14, 2011 – July 18, 2017
Hon. John Horgan
July 18, 2017 – present
Leader of the
John Horgan
May 4, 2014 – July 18, 2017
Christy Clark
July 18 – August 4, 2017
Rich Coleman
August 4, 2017 – February 3, 2018
Andrew Wilkinson
February 3, 2018 – present
Party caucuses
GovernmentLiberal Party
New Democratic Party
(The Liberal Party briefly formed government but was defeated in a confidence vote on June 29, 2017.)
OppositionNew Democratic Party
Liberal Party
Third partyGreen Party*
* The Green Party agreed to provide confidence and supply for the NDP government. It was granted official party status retroactive to October 4, 2017.
Legislative Assembly
British Columbia 41st Legislature Seating Plan.svg
Seating arrangements of the Legislative Assembly
Speaker of the
Hon. Steve Thomson
June 22–29, 2017
Hon. Darryl Plecas
September 8, 2017 – present
House Leader
Hon. Mike de Jong
May 4, 2014 – July 18, 2017
Hon. Mike Farnworth
July 18, 2017 – present
House Leader
Mike Farnworth
May 4, 2014 – July 18, 2017
Mike de Jong
July 18, 2017 – present
Members87 MLA seats
Coat of Arms of British Columbia.svg
Seating arrangements of the Senate
MonarchHM Elizabeth II
February 6, 1952 – present
HH Hon. Janet Austin
April 24, 2018 – present
1st Session
June 22, 2017 – September 8, 2017
2nd Session
September 8, 2017 – February 13, 2018
3rd Session
February 13, 2018 – February 12, 2019
4th Session
February 12, 2019 – February 11, 2020
5th Session
February 11, 2020 –
<40th 42nd>

The 41st Parliament of British Columbia is the parliament of the Canadian province of British Columbia. It consists of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, as elected by the general election of May 9, 2017, and the Queen in Right of British Columbia represented by the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia Janet Austin. The election saw an increase in the size of the legislature from 85 to 87 seats. Immediately following the election, Christy Clark, the incumbent premier, asked the Lieutenant Governor to remain governing until the final votes were counted and it would be known if there would be a majority or minority government.[1] Then-Lieutenant Governor Judith Guichon agreed and Clark appointed a cabinet of 21 ministers and 13 parliamentary secretaries, which were sworn in on June 12, 2017.[2]

Although the final vote confirmed that the British Columbia Liberal Party under Clark remained the largest party in the legislative assembly after the election, the British Columbia New Democratic Party under leader John Horgan and Green Party of British Columbia under Andrew Weaver combined had 44 seats (41 NDP and 3 Green) to the Liberals' 43.[3] On May 29, 2017 the Greens announced they had agreed to a confidence and supply accord with the NDP which would allow the NDP to form a minority government.[4]

Clark convened the Legislative Assembly on June 22, 2017 before losing a vote of confidence on June 29.[5] Horgan was then asked to serve as premier by the Lieutenant Governor,[6] and was sworn in along with his 22-member cabinet on July 18, 2017.[7]

Party standings

Standings in the 41st British Columbia Parliament
Affiliation House Members
2017 Election
As of 15 January 2020
Liberal 43 42
New Democratic 41 41
Green 3 2
Independent 2[9]
Total members 87 87
Total seats 87

Election and appointments

The members of the legislative assembly were elected in the 41st general election, held on May 9, 2017. The election returned 43 BC Liberals, 41 BC NDP members, and 3 BC Greens. As the leader of the largest party, Christy Clark was offered, by Lieutenant Governor Judith Guichon, the first opportunity to form a government, though the BC Green Party had announced they would support the BC NDP.[10] Clark accepted and appointed 21 members to her Executive Council[11] and 13 parliamentary secretaries.[12] The cabinet was largely the same as the 40th Parliament, but with Sam Sullivan and Linda Reid, as well as newcomers Jordan Sturdy, Ellis Ross, and Jas Johal replacing ministers who had retired or were defeated in the election. This cabinet only served during the Parliament's first session in which it lost a confidence vote and Clark resigned as an MLA, triggering a by-election in the Kelowna West riding.

After the government lost a confidence vote, the Lieutenant Governor refused Premier Clark's request to call an election and offered the second largest party, the BC NDP, the opportunity to form a government. BC NDP leader John Horgan agreed and appointed an Executive Council of 22 members and 6 parliamentary secretaries, including Carole James as deputy premier and Minister of Finance, Adrian Dix as Minister of Health, David Eby as Attorney General, Rob Fleming as Minister of Education, and Michelle Mungall as Minister of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources.[13]

First session

The first session of the 41st Parliament began on June 22, 2017, with the Speech from the Throne delivered by Lieutenant Governor Guichon on behalf of the Premier Clark and the BC Liberal government. Acknowledging the split results of the election, the speech included not only BC Liberal election promises but also some from the opposition parties, such as banning corporate and union political donations, a maximum donation limit for individuals, a referendum on electoral reform, repealing the referendum requirement for new TransLink revenue sources, eliminating tolls on the Port Mann Bridge, and raising the carbon tax to $50 a tonne.[14] When the throne speech finally came to a vote on June 26, both the NDP and Green parties introduced and voted for a motion of no confidence, defeating the government. In the meantime, the government had attempted to introduce two bills (one that would have reduced the number of MLAs necessary to form an official party within the legislative assembly from 4 to 3, thereby allowing the BC Green Party to gain such status and another addressing corporate and union political donations) but the refused first reading.[15]

Second session

The second session began on September 8, 2017, and all bills were provided royal assent by November 30. On September 8, BC Liberal Darryl Plecas accepted the position of Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and a speech from the throne was delivered again by Lieutenant Governor Guichon, this time on behalf of Premier Horgan and the BC NDP government with the support of the Green Party. Plecas was expelled from the BC Liberal the following day as a consequence for accepting the Speaker position;[16] Plecas subsequently sat as an Independent and enforced more civility in the legislative assembly.[17]

Legislative amendments related to elections and governance, the Constitution Amendment Act, 2017 (Bill 5) reduced the number of MLAs necessary to form an official party within the legislative assembly from 4 to 2 and changed the fixed election date to October.[18] The Electoral Reform Referendum 2018 Act (Bill 6) requires a referendum respecting a proportional representation voting system be held no later than November 30, 2018. The ban on corporate, union and foreign donations was implemented with the Election Amendment Act, 2017 (Bill 3) and Local Elections Campaign Financing Amendment Act, 2017 (Bill 15) which required all political contributions be made by a resident of British Columbia and sets new maximum donation limits, including limits to third party sponsors, and political spending limits, as well as public subsidies until the year 2022 for the political parties who achieved 5% of the vote in their electoral districts (e.g. the BC NDP, BC Liberal and BC Green parties).[19] The Lobbyists Registration Amendment Act, 2017 (Bill 8) prohibited specified former public office holders (like former members of cabinet, deputy minister, chief executive officers, etc.) from lobbying activities for two years after leaving those positions.

Other bills that were adopted with support from all parties, included the Tenancy Statutes Amendment Act, 2017 (Bill 16) to limit the use of a vacate clause in fixed-term tenancy agreements, limit rent increases imposed at the renewal of fixed-term tenancy agreements to a specified amount (i.e. 2% plus inflation), and increase enforcement abilities against repeat and serious violators of tenancy laws; the Public Safety Statutes Amendment Act, 2017 (Bill 12) to create a system of e-Tickets for driving offences and e-Certificates of service, and validating the practice of impoundment of vehicles as a result of a roadside alcohol test; the Provincial Court Amendment Act, 2017 (Bill 11) to extend the term of judicial appointments from 10 years to 12; the Sheriff Amendment Act, 2017 (Bill 14) to enable sheriffs to collect personal information to a conduct threat or risk assessment; and the Pooled Registered Pension Plans Amendment Act, 2017 (Bill 13) to delete the requirement of print publication of new multilateral agreements.

Third session

The third session began on February 13, 2018, with a new speech from the throne. Ben Stewart joined the legislative assembly as a result of the February 14 by-election in Kelowna West to replace former-Premier Christy Clark. There were no changes to the Executive Council. The Budget Measures Implementation Act, 2018 amended the property transfer tax to cover bare trusts and exempt bankruptcy transactions while increasing the rate paid on the portion of a real estate transaction that is beyond $3 million; created an additional school tax applicable to residential properties assessed above $3 million; created the means for municipalities to issue "revitalization school tax exemptions" for newly constructed rental housing; made online accommodation platform subject to the Provincial Sales Tax and the hotel tax; eliminated the education tax credit and expanded the film incentive tax credit include to scriptwriting; exempted marine diesel fuel used in inter-jurisdictional cruise ships from the motor fuel tax; increased the PST rate payable on passenger vehicles priced over $125,000; increased the tax on tobacco, and made requirements for additional information regarding residency to claim homeowner grant and property tax deferrals for the purpose of better enforcement. The budget passed on a vote of 44 in favour, 41 opposed.[20] Another budget bill, Bill 44, created – on a 44 to 38 vote – a new payroll tax, on payrolls over $500,000, to replace the Medical Services premium.[21] In a 43 to 42 vote, Bill 51 was adopted to update and modernize the Environmental Assessment Act. In a 43 to 31 vote, the Insurance (Vehicle) Amendment Act, 2018 was passed to limit ICBC accident benefit coverage for minor injuries and to increase the maximum payable limit for other injuries, including adding new coverage for various health care services.[22] Related to the ICBC reforms, Bill 22 expanded the jurisdiction of the Civil Resolution Tribunal to include certain ICBC claim disputes.[23][24]

Legislative amendments related to housing included Bill 45, which created the Speculation and Vacancy Tax, applicable to unoccupied residential properties in Metro Vancouver, the Capital Regional District, parts of the Fraser Valley Regional District and several other municipalities.[25] Bill 12 addressed "renovictions" by extending the mandatory notice of eviction from 2 to 4 months, legally giving evicted tenants the right of first refusal for the renovated unit, increasing compensation a landlord found guilty of a bad-faith eviction must pay from 2 to 12 months' rent, as well as increasing compensation evicted tenants of manufactured home parks receive from 12 months pad rental to a prescribed sum related to the cost of moving the dwelling.[25][26] Bill 25 amended the Real Estate Development Marketing Act to address pre-sale condo flipping by requiring developer consent to such activity and making it subject to property transfer tax.[25] Amendments affecting local governments were contained in Bill 18, which requires local governments to collect and report information on housing, such as the available housing stock,[25] and Bill 23, which gives local governments the ability to require, under a zoning regulation, that rental be the only form of occupancy permitted in specified units of multifamily residential developments.[25][27]

In preparation of the impending legalization of recreational cannabis by the federal government, the Cannabis Control and Licensing Act, the Cannabis Distribution Act, and the Motor Vehicle Amendment Act, 2018, created a legal framework, including a minimum age of 19 for possession, the province acting as the sole wholesale distributor, sales being accommodated in either public or private retail stores, prohibition of smoking in all the same areas where tobacco smoking is prohibited as well as within vehicles, provisions to deal with drug-affected driving, and the establishment of a new provincial cannabis safety unit.[28] Other legislation related to health included the creation of the Voluntary Blood Donations Act (Bill 29) to prohibit payment for blood donations, subject to certain exemptions; related to the opioid epidemic, the Pill Press and Related Equipment Control Act (Bill 27) to limit who can lawfully own a pill press and to allow for a registry of equipment to be maintained by the government; the Opioid Damages and Health Care Costs Recovery Act (Bill 38) to allow the provincial government to launch an aggregate action lawsuit against opioid manufacturers and wholesalers who misled the public concerning the addictive and harmful nature of opioids;[29] and the Workers Compensation Act was amended to add a new mental disorder presumption for first responders and, at the request of the federal government, extended cancer presumptions to federally employed firefighters.

Without division, Bill 47 repealed the 37th Parliament's Health and Social Services Delivery Improvement Act and the Health Sector Partnerships Agreement Act which enabled contract-flipping in the healthcare sector,[30] Bill 50 re-established the Human Rights Commission for British Columbia which had been abolished by the same Parliament, and Bill 41 repealed the 37th Parliament's Public Education Flexibility and Choice Act which had removed the BC Teachers' Federation ability to negotiate class size and composition, and had led to teacher strikes, but was mostly struck down by the Supreme Court of Canada.[31] Bill 55 created provisions to allow all types of vehicle for hire companies to operate in British Columbia.[32] The Public Interest Disclosure Act (Bill 28) was adopted to protect whistleblowers as recommended in the Ombudsperson's Misfire report concerning the inappropriate employment terminations within the Ministry of Health – Bill 13 was also implemented a recommendation of the same report, in this case to allow for the Merit Commissioner to review the process used in any dismissal within the public service. Bill 26 amended the Child, Family and Community Service Act to provide indigenous communities with the opportunity for greater involvement in child welfare decisions and to create a right, that must be considered in decision-making, for an indigenous child to learn about the practice of the child's indigenous traditions, customs and language. Bill 34 renamed the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets Act to the Climate Change Accountability Act and replaced the 2020 emission reduction target of 33 percent with a 2030 reduction target of 40 percent below 2007 levels.

Other significant legislative amendments, adopted with all party support, included the Employment Standards Amendment Act, 2018, which created a job-protected leave of absence that parents of a child who has gone missing can take (52 weeks unpaid leave) and extended the leave of absence parents of a child who has died can take from 3 days to 104 weeks, as well as amendments in response to expansions of compassionate care, maternity and parental benefits by the federal government. The Temporary Foreign Worker Protection Act (Bill 48) created a licensing program for recruiters and employers of foreign worker and allows for the recovery of unauthorized fees charged by recruiters.[33] Bill 11 modernized the province's International Commercial Arbitration Act by bringing it in line with guidelines of the UN Commission on International Trade Law and Bill 21 brought the province's legislation concerning opting in or out of class action lawsuits into line with the Uniform Law Conference of Canada's guidelines. Bill 15 allows the Oil and Gas Commission to make regulations requiring restoration of inactive wells before the responsible organization claims bankruptcy and to cancel or suspend permits on the basis of applicant's history of non-compliance with restoration; Bill 16 enabled self-regulatory organizations to enforce their decisions with a court order; Bill 4 renamed the BC Innovation Council to "Innovate BC" and expanded its mandate.

Fourth session

The fourth session began on February 12, 2019, with a new speech from the throne. There were no changes to the Executive Council. Sheila Malcolmson joined the legislative assembly as a result of the January 30 by-election in the Nanaimo electoral district to replace Leonard Krog, who resigned to run for Mayor of Nanaimo. BC Liberal Ben Stewart sat as an independent for the two month he was being investigated for an irregular political contribution.[34] Legislative changes resulting from the 2019 budget were implemented in the Budget Measures Implementation Act, 2019, including replacing the "BC early childhood tax benefit" with the "BC child opportunity benefit",[35] making the "BC flow-through mining expenditure tax credit" and the "mining exploration tax credit" permanent,[36] extending or increasing tax credits relating to farmers' food donations, shipbuilding, and small business venture capital, and allowing TransLink to increase the Metro Vancouver fuel tax by 1.5 cents per litre to fund the Phase 2 portion of its 10-Year Investment Plan.[37] The budget passed on a vote of 44 in favour, 39 opposed. In a separate bill, Bill 45, the provincial sales tax payable on vaping products was increased from 7% to 20%.[38] On a 76 to 3 division, with only the Green Party members opposed, Bill 10 repealed the previous parliament's Liquefied Natural Gas Income Tax Act, with its "LNG tax credit" being moved into the Income Tax Act.[39] Three private member's bills, all introduced by Andrew Weaver of the Green Party, were adopted: Bill M-209 allows benefit corporations to be registered in the province, Bill M-206 allows a tenant to terminate a lease if experiencing household violence on the premises, and Bill M-225 makes the fourth Saturday in November Ukrainian Famine and Genocide (Holodomor) Memorial Day.[40] With no division, Bill 20 repealed the Medical Services Plan premium as a head tax (which had been replaced by the payroll tax created in the previous session).[41]

Legislative amendments related to money laundering included Bill 23, which created the Land Owner Transparency Act to require a land-owning corporation, trust or partnership to report beneficial ownership.[42] Relatedly, Bill 24 created the Transparency Register to provide records of registered owners and beneficial owners of corporations to police, regulators and tax authorities. Bill 33 expanded the British Columbia Securities Commission's investigative powers, its ability to collect fines, and its ability to protect whistleblower from retaliatory actions[43] Bills 26 and 37 dissolved the Financial Institutions Commission and created the BC Financial Services Authority, a new crown agency to jointly regulate financial institutions, insurance agencies, and mortgage brokers.[44][45] Addressing threats from organized crime, the Witness Security Act (Bill 4) was adopted to establish a confidential, voluntary witness security program to supplement the federal version[46] and Bill 13 amended the Community Safety Act to allow a dedicated enforcement unit to accept and investigate confidential complaints about properties that are a threat to the safety of the community.[47]

New legislation, adopted with all-party support, included the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Act (Bill 41) to implement the UNDRIP,[48] the Protection of Public Participation Act (Bill 2) to address strategic lawsuits against public participation;[49] the Ticket Sales Act (Bill 27) to ban the use of automated ticket-purchasing software, mandate secondary ticket sellers disclose the additional fees added to the original price, and provide refunds for cancelled events or unusable (e.g. counterfeit) tickets;[50] the Zero-Emission Vehicles Act (Bill 28), to create a framework with targets for increasing the proportion of new zero-emission light-duty motor vehicles that are sold or leased in BC;[51] and the Fuel Price Transparency Act (Bill 42), to require businesses involved in the transporting, marketing and supplying of gasoline and diesel to provide data to the BC Utilities Commission on how fuel prices are set.[52]

Other significant legislative amendments included Bill 7, which amended the Business Practices and Consumer Protection Act to separately regulate "High-Cost Credit Products" and lower their maximum fees;[53] Bill 4, which amended the Interpretation Act to allow for the ending of daylight saving time;[54] and Bill 14, which created a duty to report discoveries of sites or objects with potential heritage value.[55] Addressing employment and labour standards, Bill 8 raised the minimum work age from 12 to 14, prohibited employers from withholding or deducting tips from wages, and created a new allowance of unpaid leave for victims of domestic violence or critical illness,[56] while Bill 30 removed teachers from the list of essential services and further addressed contract-flipping by extending protections to re-tendered service (janitorial, security, transportation, health) contracts.[57] Both on a 44 to 38 vote, Bill 15 amended the administrative procedures of the Agricultural Land Commission[58] and Bill 22 amended the Forest Act to require ministerial approval for companies to transfer a timber licence and to require public interest be considered in the disposition of forestry agreements.[59] Based on the government's comprehensive review of BC Hydro, Bill 19 amended several acts to, among other things, reinstate the BC Utilities Commission's authority to review BC Hydro's electricity supply and demand forecasting (Integrated Resource Plan), disapply the Utilities Commission Act from Powerex, and require BC Utilities Commission approval of new purchase agreements with independent power producers and feed-in tariffs.[60] Based on the coastal ferry services review, Bill 25 amended the Coastal Ferry Act to add that the BC Ferry Authority must consider the public's interest in safe, reliable and affordable service in addition to the other factors.[61]

Fifth session

The fifth session began on February 11, 2020, with a new speech from the throne. The legislature convened until March 5 before entering a recess which was interrupted by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the province. It reconvened for one day, March 23, with 10 MLAs in attendance, when they adopted a $5-billion aid package and amended the Employment Standards Act to insert provisions for employers to provide an unpaid "COVID-19-related leave".[62]



Other Chair occupants


House leaders

Members of the 41st Parliament

Member Party Electoral district
  Darryl Plecas Liberal (until September 9, 2017)[64] Abbotsford South
  Mike de Jong Liberal Abbotsford West
  Simon Gibson Liberal Abbotsford-Mission
  Linda Larson Liberal Boundary-Similkameen
     Anne Kang NDP Burnaby-Deer Lake
     Raj Chouhan NDP Burnaby-Edmonds
     Katrina Chen NDP Burnaby-Lougheed
     Janet Routledge NDP Burnaby North
  Donna Barnett Liberal Cariboo-Chilcotin
  Coralee Oakes Liberal Cariboo North
  John Martin Liberal Chilliwack
  Laurie Throness Liberal Chilliwack-Kent
  Doug Clovechok Liberal Columbia River-Revelstoke
  Joan Isaacs Liberal Coquitlam-Burke Mountain
     Selina Robinson NDP Coquitlam-Maillardville
     Ronna-Rae Leonard NDP Courtenay-Comox
  Sonia Furstenau Green Cowichan Valley
     Ravi Kahlon NDP Delta North
  Ian Paton Liberal Delta South
     Mitzi Dean NDP Esquimalt-Metchosin
  Jackie Tegart Liberal Fraser-Nicola
  Peter Milobar Liberal Kamloops-North Thompson
  Todd Stone Liberal Kamloops-South Thompson
  Norm Letnick Liberal Kelowna-Lake Country
  Steve Thomson Liberal Kelowna-Mission
  Christy Clark (until August 4, 2017)[citation needed] Liberal Kelowna West
  Ben Stewart (from February 14, 2018) Liberal
  Tom Shypitka Liberal Kootenay East
     Katrine Conroy NDP Kootenay West
     John Horgan NDP Langford-Juan de Fuca
  Mary Polak Liberal Langley
  Rich Coleman Liberal Langley East
     Bob D'Eith NDP Maple Ridge-Mission
     Lisa Beare NDP Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows
     Scott Fraser NDP Mid Island-Pacific Rim
     Leonard Krog (to November 30, 2018) NDP Nanaimo
     Sheila Malcolmson (from January 30, 2019) NDP
     Doug Routley NDP Nanaimo-North Cowichan
  John Rustad Liberal Nechako Lakes
     Michelle Mungall NDP Nelson-Creston
     Judy Darcy NDP New Westminster
     Jennifer Rice NDP North Coast
     Claire Trevena NDP North Island
     Bowinn Ma NDP North Vancouver-Lonsdale
  Jane Thornthwaite Liberal North Vancouver-Seymour
  Andrew Weaver Green (until January 20, 2020)[65] Oak Bay-Gordon Head
  Michelle Stilwell Liberal Parksville-Qualicum
  Dan Davies Liberal Peace River North
  Mike Bernier Liberal Peace River South
  Dan Ashton Liberal Penticton
     Mike Farnworth NDP Port Coquitlam
     Rick Glumac NDP Port Moody-Coquitlam
     Nicholas Simons NDP Powell River-Sunshine Coast
  Mike Morris Liberal Prince George-Mackenzie
  Shirley Bond Liberal Prince George-Valemount
  Teresa Wat Liberal Richmond North Centre
  Linda Reid Liberal Richmond South Centre
  Jas Johal Liberal Richmond-Queensborough
  John Yap Liberal Richmond-Steveston
  Adam Olsen Green Saanich North and the Islands
     Lana Popham NDP Saanich South
  Greg Kyllo Liberal Shuswap
  Ellis Ross Liberal Skeena
     Doug Donaldson NDP Stikine
  Marvin Hunt Liberal Surrey-Cloverdale
     Jagrup Brar NDP Surrey-Fleetwood
     Rachna Singh NDP Surrey-Green Timbers
     Garry Begg NDP Surrey-Guildford
     Harry Bains NDP Surrey-Newton
     Jinny Sims NDP Surrey-Panorama
  Stephanie Cadieux Liberal Surrey South
     Bruce Ralston NDP Surrey-Whalley
  Tracy Redies Liberal Surrey-White Rock
     George Heyman NDP Vancouver-Fairview
  Sam Sullivan Liberal Vancouver-False Creek
     George Chow NDP Vancouver-Fraserview
     Shane Simpson NDP Vancouver-Hastings
     Mable Elmore NDP Vancouver-Kensington
     Adrian Dix NDP Vancouver-Kingsway
  Michael Lee Liberal Vancouver-Langara
     Melanie Mark NDP Vancouver-Mount Pleasant
     David Eby NDP Vancouver-Point Grey
  Andrew Wilkinson†† Liberal Vancouver-Quilchena
     Spencer Chandra Herbert NDP Vancouver-West End
  Eric Foster Liberal Vernon-Monashee
     Carole James NDP Victoria-Beacon Hill
     Rob Fleming NDP Victoria-Swan Lake
  Ralph Sultan Liberal West Vancouver-Capilano
  Jordan Sturdy Liberal West Vancouver-Sea to Sky


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