2011 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election

Joseph Kabila 2018 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election 2006 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election
2011 DR Congo presidential election

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  Joseph Kabila April 2016.jpg Étienne Tshisekedi.jpg
Nominee Joseph Kabila Étienne Tshisekedi
Party Independent UDPS
Popular vote 8,880,944 5,864,775
Percentage 48.95% 32.33%

DRCongo-2011election-results.png
Results by province.
Yellow: Kabila, Red: Tshisekedi, Green: Kengo

President before election

Joseph Kabila
Independent

Elected President

Joseph Kabila
Independent

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General elections were held in Democratic Republic of the Congo on 28 November 2011; a facultative run-off on 26 February 2012 was shelved with a change in election laws.[1][2]

The government passed laws to abolish the second round of the presidential election and tried to change the legislative electoral system from proportional to majority representation, which was strongly criticized by the opposition.[3][4]

International organizations such as the United Nations and the European Union raised concerns about the transparency of the elections.[5][6]

On 8 November 2011 opposition leader Étienne Tshisekedi declared himself president saying the majority of people turned against President Kabila.[7]

On 28 November 2011 elections were held under difficult conditions. Voting was characterized by incidents of violence throughout the country.[8] Because of violence and delays in the delivery of ballot boxes elections were extended by a second day.[9]

Candidates

  1. Jean Andeka (ANCC)
  2. Adam Bombolé (independent)
  3. Joseph Kabila (independent)
  4. François Nicéphore Kakese (URDC)
  5. Vital Kamerhe (UNC)
  6. Oscar Kashala (UREC)
  7. Léon Kengo (UFC)
  8. Antipas Mbusa (independent)
  9. Nzanga Mobutu (Udemo)
  10. Josué Alex Mukendi (independent)
  11. Étienne Tshisekedi (UDPS)

Registration

DR Congo's National Independent Electoral Commission has registered 32 million voters for the November elections.

Province Registered voters
Kinshasa 3,287,745
Bas-Congo 1,502,939
Bandundu 3,553,322
Equateur 3,960,643
Orientale 3,886,524
North Kivu 3,003,246
South Kivu 2,022,960
Maniema 874,809
Katanga 4,627,302
Kasai Oriental 2,643,905
Kasai Occidental 2,661,245
Total 32,024,640

Results

Voters standing in line in Walikale.
Electoral campaign posters in Ndjili, Kinshasa
Voting cards for the 2011 election

President

The first results released on 2 December 2011, with 15% of the vote counted (mostly in areas considered Kabila strongholds), gave Kabila only a narrow lead of 940,000 votes (52%) against 912,000 votes (34%) for UPDS leader Tshisekedi;[10] Vital Kamerhe had 4.5% of the votes.[11]

With half the precincts counted, Kabila was leading with 4.9 million votes, or nearly 49%. His opponent Etienne Tshisekedi was trailing with 3.4 million votes, about 34%.[12] However, this count did not include much of Kinshasa, where Tshisekedi was expected to have strong results. Kabila ceased all email and SMS services nationwide. It has been also said that over 5,000,000 of ballot papers were pre-ticked for the number 3 candidate (Kabila), However no formal actions were taken by the CENI, which led to the population to act as they burned pre ticked ballot papers that were found.[13]

The announcement of final results was postponed to 8 December 2011; with over two thirds of the vote counted, Kabila led with 46% to Tshisekedi's 36%.[14]

The Independent National Electoral Commission declared Kabila as the winner on December 9. The result was put into question by the Carter Center as well as the archbishop of Kinshasa, Cardinal Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya, claiming too many irregularities occurred to assure that the results reflected the will of the people.[15] The Carter Center indicated that ballots had been missing in some areas while in others Kabila achieved unrealistic results.[15] Observers from the Carter Center noted that in some districts voter participation was reported to be 100 percent, a most unlikely possibility.[16] MONUSCO, the peacekeeping mission of the United Nations, also voiced concern about the results.[16]

While Kabila admitted that some mistakes had been made in the process, he rejected concerns about the outcome. The result was confirmed by the Supreme Court of the Democratic Republic of Congo.[17]

Jerome Kitoko, President of the Supreme Court, announcing the official results proclaimed Kabila to be the winner of the Presidential election.[17][18]

Candidate Party Votes %
Joseph Kabila Independent 8,880,944 48.95
Étienne Tshisekedi Union for Democracy and Social Progress 5,864,775 32.33
Vital Kamerhe Union for the Congolese Nation 1,403,372 7.74
Léon Kengo Union of Forces of Change 898,362 4.95
Antipas Mbusa Independent 311,787 1.72
Nzanga Mobutu Union of Mobutuist Democrats 285,273 1.57
Jean Andeka Alliance of Congolese Nationalist Believers 128.820 0.71
Adam Bombolé Independent 126,623 0.70
François Nicéphore Kakese Union for the Revival and the Development of Congo 92,737 0.51
Josué Alex Mukendi Independent 78,151 0.43
Oscar Kashala Union for the Rebuilding of Congo 72,260 0.40
Invalid/blank votes 768,468
Total 18,911,572 100
Registered voters/turnout 32,024,640 59.05
Source: African Elections Database

National Assembly

Party Votes % Seats
People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy 69
UDPS–Tshisekedi 42
People's Party for Peace and Democracy 30
Social Movement for Renewal 28
Movement for the Liberation of the Congo 21
Alliance of Congo Democratic Forces 17
Unified Lumumbist Party 17
Union for the Congolese Nation 16
Alliance for the Renewal of Congo 15
Rally for the Reconstruction of Congo 12
Christian Democrat Party 9
Congo Future 8
Awakening Conscience for Labor and Development 8
Movement for the Integrity of People 8
Union of Nationalist Federalists of Congo 8
RCD–Kisangani-Movement for Liberation 7
Congolese Union for Progress 6
Union for the Development of Congo 6
United Congolese Convention 5
Convention of Progressives for the Republic 5
New Alliance of Democrats 5
National Union of Federalist Democrats 5
Congolese Labor Alliance for Development 4
Convention of Christian Democrats 4
Convention for the Republic and Democracy 4
Congolese Movement for Renaissance 4
Congolese Party for Development 4
Union of Federalist Christian Democrats 4
Union of Forces for Change 4
Alliance of Humanist Democrats 3
Congress of Allies for Action in Congo 3
DCF–CFDC 3
Federalist Christian Democracy-Nyamwisi 3
League for the Defense of Citizens' Interests 3
Support for Étienne Tshisekedi 3
Alliance of Builders of Kongo 2
Christian Alliance for Democracy and Development 2
Alliance for Development and the Republic 2
Build a United and Prosperous Congo 2
Party for Peace in Congo 2
Commitment to Citizenship and Development 2
Foundation of Congo 2
Congolese People's Movement for the Republic 2
Movement of Solidarity for Change 2
National Party for Democracy and the Republic 2
Reformist Party 2
Regrouping of Democrats for Progress 2
Party for the Renaissance of Congo 2
Solidarity for National Development 2
Union of Mobutuist Democrats 2
Union of Congolese Patriots 2
Agreement with the Allies Alliance 1
Congolese Alliance of Christian Democrats 1
Alliance for Humanism and Democracy 1
Alliance for Justice, Development, and Solidarity 1
Christian Convention for Democracy 1
Current Future 1
Congolese National Congress 1
Convention for Democracy and Liberty 1
Convention for Renaissance and Progress 1
Christian Democracy 1
Dynamics for Democracy in Congo 1
Volunteers Together for Development Party of the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1
Independent Front for Christian Democracy 1
Nationalist and Integrationist Front 1
Innovative Forces for Union and Solidarity 1
Force of the People 1
Front of Social Democrats for Development 1
Social Front of Independent Republicans 1
Generation for Solidarity and the Development of Congo 1
Christian Movement for Solidarity and Democracy 1
Movement of Independent Reformists 1
Lumumbist Progressive Movement 1
Solidarity Movement for Democracy and Development 1
Our Beautiful Country 1
Autonomous Organization of the People for Renewal 1
Party for Action 1
Party of Nationalists for Integral Development 1
National Alliance Party for Unity 1
Renewal Party 1
Christian Republican Party 1
Coalition of Congolese Resistance Patriots 1
Congolese Party for Good Governance 1
Christian Democrat Party for the Development of the Congolese 1
Congolese Ecologist Party 1
National Party for Reform 1
National Party of Renewal for Development 1
Labor Party 1
Liberal Labor Party 1
National Unity Party 1
Rally for Economic and Social Development 1
Rally of Congolese Democrats and Nationalists 1
Rally for the Defense of Congolese People 1
Rally of Democrats for the Republic 1
Rally for Unity, Development, and the Environment of Congo 1
Congolese Solidarity for Democracy 1
Congolese Union for Liberty 1
Union for the Development of the Nation 1
Union for Democracy and Progress-Kibassa 1
Liberal Christian Democrats Union 1
Union for Liberty, Peace, and Development 1
Union for the Nation 1
National Union of Christian Democrats 1
Union for the Republic 1
Congolese Socialist Union 1
Independents 13
Vacant 8
Total 500
Source: African Elections Database

Aftermath

The rebels in the 2012 East D.R. Congo conflict said Kabila was not the legal winner of the election and must resign.

See also

References

  1. ^ Kavanagh, Michael J. (2011-04-30). "Congo Electoral Commission Says Presidential Elections to Be Held Nov. 28". Bloomberg.
  2. ^ http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90777/90855/7099927.html
  3. ^ "DR Congo opposition anger over electoral changes". BBC News. 2011-01-10.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2012-03-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ http://freefairdrc.com/en/about/role-of-observers
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-09-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Africa/Africa-Monitor/2011/1108/Congolese-candidate-Tshisekedi-declares-himself-president
  8. ^ http://www.english.rfi.fr/africa/20111128-day-chaotic-voting-drc-elections
  9. ^ Rukmini Callimachi (2011-11-29). "Congo Elections 2011: Vote Extended To Second Day". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  10. ^ "DR Congo election: Kabila guards 'shot UDPS supporters'". BBC News. 2011-12-02.
  11. ^ http://derstandard.at/1322531790681/Teilergebnisse-der-Wahl-bekanntgegeben
  12. ^ Dread permeates Congo ahead of election results, Kabila in lead with 49 percent
  13. ^ https://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5ipXVKU789GdE5omsWQN4h5o0nPXw?docId=700127f6203d4a7f82be1bf20e0122c6
  14. ^ "DR Congo election results delayed by 48 hours". BBC News. 2011-12-07.
  15. ^ a b Adam Nossiter (December 12, 2011). "Congo President Kabila Denies Reports of Election Fraud". The New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  16. ^ a b Associated Press (2011-12-12). "Criticism grows over Congo election results". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
  17. ^ a b "DR Congo election: Joseph Kabila confirmed as winner". BBC News Africa. 2012-12-16. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
  18. ^ Congo News Agency (2011-12-16). "Supreme Court Rules Joseph Kabila Won Presidential Election". Congo Planet. Retrieved 2011-12-17.